College Bound English

Literary Terms and Devices
Selected from A Handbook to Literature, 8th Edition by William Harmon and C. Hugh Holman

1. acronym

• A word formed by combining the initial letters or syllables of a series of words to for a name, as ―radar,‖ from ―radio detecting and ranging.‖

1. acronym

2. act (as in drama)
• A major division of DRAMA. In varying degrees the fine-act structure corresponded to the fine main divisions of dramatic action: EXPOSITION, COMPLICATION, CLIMAX, FALLING ACTION, and CATASTROPHE.

2. act (as in drama)

Mel Gibson as Hamlet

Kenneth Branagh

Derek Jacobi

3. adaptation

• The rewriting of a work from its original form to fit it for another medium; also the new form of such a rewritten work.

3. adaptation

4. aesthetics • The study or philosophy of the beautiful in nature. art and literature. It has both a philosophical dimension— What is art? What is beauty? What is the relationship of the beautiful to other values? .

aesthetics (this is a painting by Chuck Close. entitled ―Self-Portrait‖) .4.

4. aesthetics Picasso’s ―Housegarden‖ .

In literary history and criticism. the term is usually applied to a group of Southern… . agrarian • Literary people living in an agricultural society. or espousing the merits of such a society. as the Physiocrats did.5. however.

agrarian …American writers who published in Nashville.5. between 1922 and 1925 The Fugitive. Tennessee. a LITTLE MAGAZINE of poetry and some criticism championing agrarian REGIONALISM but attacking ―the old high-castle Brahmins of the Old South.‖ .

5. agrarian Hamlin Garland .

―Literature in its most comprehensive sense is the autobiography of humanity.‖ -Bernard Berenson .

RPM—rebellion. allegory • A form of extended METAPHOR in which objects. Nurse—hate. and actions in a narrative are equated with meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. judgment. Thus. control. persons. manliness. an allegory is a story in which everything is a symbol.6. conformity . open thinking.

6.) • Samuel Coleridge: the traditional distinction between a ―symbol‖ and allegory is that ―an allegory is but a translation of abstract notions into picturelanguage.‖ .‖ whereas ―a Symbol always partakes of the Reality which it makes intelligible. allegory (cont.

allegory Lord of the Flies William Golding Lord of the Flies .Wizard of Oz 6.

. alliteration • The repetition of initial identical consonant sounds or any vowel sounds in successive or closely associated syllables.7. especially stressed syllables.

alliteration .7.

The effectiveness of allusion depends on a body of knowledge shared by writer and reader. or object.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land and the author’s notes to that poem. A good example is T. . event.8. allusion • A figure of speech that makes brief reference to a historical or literary figure.

• Harding makes reference to the Lone Ranger. . ―I wash my hands of the whole deal‖ (232). or Zorro— saying RPM is a ―masked man‖ superhero (258). classic book by Melville (90). to the Bible and Pontius Pilate—a patient says.8. • Also. Batman. allusion • RPM’s shorts refer to Moby Dick.

8. allusion Babe the Blue Ox .

anachronism • Assignment of something to a time when it was not in existence. .9.

anachronism Back to the Future .9.

alike in certain aspects. particularly a method used in EXPOSITION an DESCRIPTION by which something unfamiliar is explained or described by comparing it to some thing more familiar. Will Castle— Eliza : Dorothy :: Higgins : Wizard . analogy • A comparison of two things.10.

analogy 1. find is to lose as construct is to: build demolish misplace materials 2.10. find is to locate as feign is to: pane pretend line mean .

pane is to pain as weigh is to: scale pounds weight way 5.10. bring is to brought as sing is to: sang melody song record . analogy 3. find is to kind as feign is to: pane pretend line mean 4.

dime is to tenth as quarter is to: twenty-five fourth home coin .10. analogy 6. plates is to dishes as arms is to: Legs hands farms weapons rhlschool.

Easier to shock than to convince.―Contemporary literature.‖ -Albert Camus .

with two unaccented syllables followed by an accented one. . anapest • A metrical FOOT consisting of three syllables.11.

anapest William Wordsworth .11.

.12. anecdote • A short NARRATIVE detailing particulars of an interesting EPISODE or event. The term most frequently refers to an incident in the life of an important person and should lay claim to an element of truth.

12. anecdote • Though anecdotes are often used as the basis for short stories. an anecdote lacks complicated PLOT and relates a single EPISODE. .

12. anecdote John Falstaff .

13. cite sources. comment. translate. or PARAPHRASE. give bibliographical data. . annotation • The addition of explanatory notes to a text by the author or an editor to explain. GLOSS.

. in addition to the standard bibliographical data includes comments on the works listed. annotation • A VARIOUM EDITION represents the ultimate in annotation.13. An annotated BIBLIOGRAPHY.

13. annotation Northrop Frye .

A rival. or enemy of the PROTAGONIST.14. –non-character entities can be antagonistic (settings or events) . opponent. antagonist • The character directly opposed to the PROTAGONIST.

14. antagonist Nurse Ratched .

‖ the term designates a collection of writing. either prose or poetry.15. anthology • Literally ―a gathering of flowers. . usually by various authors.

15. anthology .

journalism.‖ -Cyril Connolly . what will be grasped at once.―Literature is the art of writing something that will be read twice.

16. . aside (as in drama) • A dramatic convention by which an actor directly addresses the audience but is not supposed to be heard by the other actors on the stage.

16. aside (as in drama) Roderigo and Iago .

―lake‖ and ―fate‖ assonance. ―Lake‖ and ―fake‖ demonstrate RHYME.17. . Assonance differs from RHYME in that RHYME is a similarity of vowel and consonant. assonance (as in poetry) • Same or similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds.

17. assonance (as in poetry) John Donne .

18. . autobiography • The story of a person’s life as written by that person.

18. autobiography Maya Angelou .

Charles Bukowski 18. autobiography .

and subject matter. form. . avant-garde • Applied to new writing that shows striking (and usually selfconscious) innovations in style.19.

avant-garde John Ashbery Frank O’Hara .19.

. bard • In modern use.20. simply a POET. Historically the term refers to poets who recited verses glorifying the deeds of heroes and leaders to the accompaniment of musical instrument such as the harp.

20. bard Shakespeare .

‖ -T.―Our literature is substitute for religion.S. Eliot . and so is our religion.

Bildungsroman • A NOVEL that deals with the development of a young person. it is frequently autobiographical. usually from adolescence to maturity.21. .

21. Bildungsroman Great Expectations Pip .

LETTERS. MEMOIRS.22. . and AUTOBIOGRAPHIES ought to be distinguished from biography proper. biography • A written account of a person’s life. a life history. JOURNALS. DIARIES.

JOURNALS. and AUTOBIOGRAPHIES are closely related to each other in that each is recollection written down by the subject of the work. DIARIES.22. . biography • MEMOIRS.

22. biography Paul Burrell Princess Diana .

which often deal with suffering. The term refers as much to the tone of anger and bitterness as it does to the grotesque and morbid situations.23. black humor—Cuckoo’s Nest • The use of the morbid and the ABSURD for darkly comic purposes in modern literature. and death. . anxiety.

black humor Kurt Vonnegut .23.

canon • In a figurative sense. the absolute best—the ―hall of fame‖—as determined by the qualified readership. a criterion. a standard of judgment. • In a literal sense.24. .

24. canon Harold Bloom .

‖… .25. in defining TRAGEDY. Sees it objective as being ―through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation [catharsis]of these emotions. catharsis • In the Poetics Aristotle.

25. . Whatever Aristotle means thereby. catharsis remains one of the great unsettled issues. catharsis • …but he does not explain what ―proper purgation‖ means.

25. catharsis Irene Jacob in Othello .

―To provoke dreams of terror in the slumber of prosperity has become the moral duty of literature.‖ -Ernst Fischer .

character • It is a brief descriptive SKETCH of a personage who typifies dome definite quality. .26.

character Lennie Small Don Quixote .26.

any expression so often used that its freshness and clarity have worn off is called a cliché.27. . a stereotyped form. a block for printing. Hence. cliché • From the French word for stereotype plate.

Bush .27. cliché Jerry Seinfeld George W.

Such an arrangement is called climatic. and the item of greatest importance is called the climax.28. . climax • A rhetorical term for a rising order of importance in the ideas expressed.

G. Wells .28. climax H.

collage • In the pictorial arts the technique by which materials not usually associated with one another. are assembled and pasted together on a single surface. bottle tops. such as newspaper clippings. or theater tickets. labels. wood .29. . cloth.

collage Edgar Allan Poe .29.

if narrator offers exclusive information .confidant • a close friend or associate to whom secrets are confided or with whom private matters and problems are discussed –could be the reader.

conflict • The struggle that grows out of the interplay of two opposing forces. . Conflict provides interest suspense.30. and tension.

) a struggle against nature 2.) a struggle against another person.) a struggle for mastery by two elements within the person . usually the ANTAGONIST 3.30. conflict • 1.) a struggle against society 4.

conflict William Faulkner .30.

free literature can exist only as denunciation and hope.‖ -Eduardo Galeano .―In an incarcerate society.

‖ .‖ and ―torn-burn. as ―add-read.31. consonance • The relation between words in which the final consonants in the stressed syllables agree but the vowels that precede them differ.‖ ―millball.

Eliot . consonance John Milton T.31.S.

couplet • Two consecutive lines of VERSE with END RHYMES. .32.

32. couplet T.S. Eliot Ezra Pound .

. an explanation or outcome. denouement • Literally.33.‖ The final unraveling of a plot. • Denouement is sometimes used as a synonym for FALLING ACTION. ―unknotting. the solution of a mystery.

33. denouement Scooby-Doo Stories .

Embodies certain values 1.)advances the action and is not mere ornament 2.34. dialogue • Conversation of two or more people. .)consistent with the character of the speakers.

)gives impression of naturalness without being verbatim record 4.)serves to give relief from passages . dialogue • 3.)presents the interplay of ideas and personalities 5.)varies according to the various speakers 6.34.

dialogue Ernest Hemingway James Thurber .34.

.35. diction • Choice and use of words in speech or writing.

diction Shirley Jackson .35.

―Literature decays only as men become more and more corrupt.‖ -Goethe .

didactic novel • Any novel plainly designed to teach a lesson.36. it is properly used as a synonym for the EDUCATION NOVEL. .

didactic novel The Jungle Upton Sinclair .36.

. or originally selling for a bout ten cents. an American equivalent of the British PENNY DREADFUL. dime novel • A cheaply printed. paperbound TALE of adventure or detection.37.

37. dime novel Malaeska .

38. in grammar. discourse • Mode or category of expression. we speak of discourse as direct or indirect. Discourse refers to ways of speaking that are bound by… .

38. cultural. or sociological communities. Way in which the use of language in a particular domain helps to constitute the objects it refers to. discourse • …ideological. political. professional. .

38. discourse Sandra Looney Augustana John Dudley USD .

dynamic character • A character who develops or changes as a result of the actions of the plot. Pi Patel. Marguerite Johnson.39. Esperanza Cordero… . • Eliza Doolittle. Pip.

dynamic character Sandra Cisneros Don Quixote .39.

usually in the futre. in which present tendencies are carried ou to their intensely unpleasant culminations. Ursula K.40. (George Orwell’s 1984.‖ the term is applied to accounts of imaginary worlds. Le Guin’s The Dispossessed) . ―bad place. dystopia • Literally.

40. dystopia George Orwell’s 1984 .

―It takes a great deal of history to produce a little literature.‖ -Henry James .

. elegy • A sustained and formal poem setting forth meditations on death or another solemn theme. but it may be generalized observation or the expression of a solemn mood.41. The meditation often is occasioned by the death of a particular person.

1992 . elegy Oleg Liubkivsky The Elegy of Far Autumn.41.

ellipsis • The omission of one or more words that.42. are easily supplied. • (…) only three periods! . while essential to a grammatic structure.

epic • A long narrative poem in elevated style presenting characters of high position in adventures forming and organic whole through their relation to a central heroic figure and through their development of episodes important to the history of a nation or race. .43. The epic itself is the product of a single genius.

43.) (1) The hero is of imposing nature (2) The setting is vast (3) The action consists of deeds of valor or superhuman courage (4) The supernatural (5) A style of sustained elevation (6) The poet retains a measure of objectivity . epic (cont.

43. epic Odysseus Trojan Horse .

epiphany • Literally a manifestation or showing-forth. .44. The Christian festival of Epiphany commemorates the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles in the form of the Magi. usually of some divine being.

euphemism • A device in which indirectness replaces directness of statement. usually in an effort to avoid offensiveness. .45.

euphemism husky big-boned hefty portly plump fluffy .45.

‖ -Joseph Joubert .―National literature begins with fables and ends with novels.

illustration. Identification. exposition (as in a story’s plot) • Its purpose is to explain something. classification. comparison. .46. definition. and analysis.

46. exposition (as in a story’s plot) Harry Potter .

47. Expressionism • A movement affecting painting and literature.‖ Expressionism was strongest in theater in the 1920s. which followed and went beyond IMPRESSIONISM in its efforts to ―objectify inner experience.… .

Expressionism (cont. . In the novel the presentation of the objective outer world as it expresses itself in the impressions or moods of a character is widely used device.47.) • …and its entry into other literary forms was probably though the stage.

47. Expressionism (cont. Jr. such as Kurt Vonnegut.. . ca also be included in the expressionistic tradition. More recent novelists. Joseph Heller.) • The ANTIREALISTIC NOVEL is also a genre in the expressionistic tradition. and Ken Kesey. Thomas Pynchon.

47. Expressionism ―The Muse‖ ―Lady and Her Cat‖ Millie Shapiro Jeff Buckley .

It follows the CLIMAX. and culminates in the CATASTROPHE.48. . falling action • The second half or RESOLUTION of a dramatic plot. exhibits the failing fortunes of the hero (in a tragedy) and the successful efforts in the COUNTERPLAYERS. beginning often with a tragic force.

falling action .48.

flat character • a literary character whose personality can be defined by one or two traits and does not change in the course of the story .

The purpose of the foil character is to emphasize the traits of the main character by contrast only. .foil • A foil character is either one who is opposite to the main character or nearly the same as the main character. A foil is a secondary character who contrasts with a major character.

foot (as in poetry) • The unit of rhythm in verse.49. . whether QUANTITATIVE or ACCENTUAL-SYLLABIC.

foot (as in poetry) William Blake .49.

50. foreshadowing • The presentation of material in a work in such a way that later events are prepared for. Foreshadowing can result form the establishment of a mood or atmosphere. . as in the opening of Conrad’s Heart of Darkness or the first act of Hamlet.

. In all cases. the purpose of foreshadowing is to prepare the reader or viewer for action to come.) • It can result from the appearance of physical objects or facts.50. or from the revelation of a fundamental and decisive character trait. as do the clues do in a detective story. foreshadowing (cont.

foreshadowing Ken Kesey One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest Maya Angelou’s Caged Bird Sings .50.

foreshadowing .50.

Its mission is to arouse.‖ -Mario Vargas Llosa .―Literature is a form of permanent insurrection. to alarm. to disturb. to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.

51. however. history play (as in Shakespeare) • Strictly speaking. any drama whose time setting is in some period earlier than that in which it is written. It is most widely used. . as a synonym for CHRONICLE PLAY.

history play (as in Shakespeare) King John .51.

hubris overweening pride or insolence that results in the misfortune of the PROTAGONIST of a tragedy. or ignore a divine warning with calamitous results. • . attempt vainly to transcend normal limitations.52. Hubris leads the protagonist to break a moral law.

hubris Poseidon .52.

hyperbole • Exaggeration. The figure may be used to heighten effect or it may be used for humor. .53.

53. hyperbole Kurt Vonnegut .

. iamb (as in poetry) • A foot consisting of an unaccented syllable and an accented ( ˘ ́ ). The most common rhythm in English verse.54.

iamb (as in poetry) Shakespeare .54.

55. ―To carry out‖ literally means to carry something out (of a room perhaps). as to ―carry out a command. an expression that cannot be translated literally. but idiomatically it means to see that something is done.‖ . idiom • A use of words peculiar to a given language.

idiom James Thurber .55.

Life is the other way around.‖ -David Lodge .―Literature is mostly about having sex and not much about having children.

imagery • Imagery in its literal sense means the collection of IMAGES in a literary work.56. In another sense it is synonymous with TROPE or FIGURE OF SPEECH. .

56. Scott Fitzgerald . imagery Ernest Hemingway F.

) to create new rhythms as the expressions of a new MOOD.57.) to avoid the cliché. • 3. Imagism • The objectives of Imagist are: • 1.) to use the language of common speech but to employ always the exact word—not the nearly exact word. • 2. .

• 5.) to allow absolute freedom in the choice of subject. firm. • 6.) • 4.) to strive always for concentration.) to present an image (that is. Imagism (cont.57.) to suggest rather than offer complete statements . definite in their pictures—harsh in outline). to be concrete. • 7.

) Jack Kerouac On the Road William Carlos Williams Selected Poetry .57. Imagism (cont.

Impressionism • A highly personal manner of writing in which the author presents materials as they appear to an individual temperament at a precise moment and from a particular vantage point rather than as they are presumed to be in actuality. .58.

Impressionism ―Ninfee Bianche‖ Claude Monet 1899 .58.

‖ it is applied to the literary technique of opening a story in the middle of the action and then supplying information about the beginning of the action through flashbacks and other devices for exposition. . literally meaning ―in the midst of things.59. in medias res • A term from Horace.

59. in medias res .

In the opening line of Eliot’s ―Gerontion‖—‖Here I am.‖ . an old man in a dry month‖—there is internal rhyme between ―am‖ and ―man‖ and between ―I‖ and ―dry.60. internal rhyme (as in poetry) • Rhyme that occurs at some place before the last syllables in a line.

60. internal rhyme (as in poetry) Li-Young Lee .

Mencken .‖ -H.―A great literature is …chiefly the product of doubting and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.L.

irony • A broad term referring to the recognition of reality different from appearance. Verbal irony is a FIGURE OF SPEECH in which the actually intent is expressed in words that carry the opposite meaning.61. .

irony .61.

62. The most famous Künstlerroman in English is James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Künstlerroman • A form of the APPRENCESHIP NOVEL in which the protagonist is an artist struggling from childhood to maturity toward an understanding of his or her creative mission. .

Künstlerroman Chaim Potok .62.

limerick • A form of light verse that follows a definite pattern: five anapestic lines of which the first. rhyme.second. consisting of three feet. and the third and fourth lines. and fifth. .63. rhyme. consisting of two feet.

He was welcome to Nan. Nantucket. And he said to the man. Pawtucket. The man and the girl with the bucket. But as for the bucket. But he followed the pair to Pawtucket. Who kept all of his cash in a bucket. But his daughter.There once was a man from Nantucket. limerick . 63. And as for the bucket. named Nan. Ran away with a man.

masque • In medieval Europe there existed.64. partly as survivals or adaptations of ancient pagan seasonal ceremonies. species of games or SPECTACLES characterized by a procession of masked figures. .

64. masque Romeo and Juliet Edgar Allan Poe .

win the trick‖ is a maxim in bridge.65. usually drawn from experience and inculcating some practical advice. Hoyle’s ―When in doubt. maxim • A concise statement. . an ADAGE.

maxim ―Ask not what your country can do for you— …ask what you can do for your country. Kennedy .‖ John F.65.

―Literature is doomed if liberty of thought perishes.‖ -George Orwell .

66. memoir • A form of autobiographical writing dealing usually with the recollections of one who has been a part of or has witnessed significant events. Memoirs differ from AUTOBIOGRAPHY proper in that they are usually… .

66. . memoir • …concerned with personalities and actions other than those of the writer. whereas autobiography stresses the inner and private life of its subject.

A Million Little Pieces .66. memoir James Frey.

metaphysical • Although sometimes used in the broad sense of philosophical poetry. the term is commonly applied to the work of the seventeenth-century writers called the ―Metaphysical Poets.67.‖ .

67. in particular the PETRARCHAN CONCEIT. metaphysical • They formed a school in the sense of employing similar methods and of revolting against the conventions of Elizabethan love poetry. .

metaphysical John Donne .67.

meter (as in poetry) • The recurrence in poetry of a rhythmic pattern. or the RHYTHM established by the regular occurrence of similar units of sound.68. The four basic kinds of rhythmic patters are: .

) 1. meter (as in poetry) (cont.68.) QUANTITIVE accentual syllabic accentual-syllabic .) 3.) 2.) 4.

meter (as in poetry) .68.

objects. In literature. . less strictly. interest. a conventional situation. phrases. or. recurrent images. motif • A simple element that serves as a basis for expanded narrative. or actions that tend to unify the work are called motives. or incident. device.69. words.

• In books. ideas. white and black. recurring themes. north and south. motif (cont. etc.69. characters.) • Patterns of day and night. and the game of chess. . blonde and brunette. summer and winter. images.

motif Cervantes Don Quixote .69.

mood • In literary work the mood is the emotional-intellectual attitude of the author toward the subject.70. .

mood .70.

―Literature is both my joy and my comfort: it can add to every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.‖ -Pliny the Younger .

muses • Nine goddesses represented as presiding over the various departments of art and science. .71. their traditional significance I that of inspiring and helping poets. They are the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. In literature.

Muses (1)Calliope (epic) (6)Polyhymnia (sacred choric (2)Clio (history) poetry) (3)Erato (lyrics and (7)Terpischore love poetry) (choral dance (4)Euterpe (music) and song) (5)Melpomene (8)Thalia (comedy) (tragedy) (9)Urania (astronomy) .71.

com/muse/muses.71.jpg . Muses http://shekinah.elysiumgates.

It draws its name from its basic assumption that everything real exists in NATURE. and… . Naturalism • A term best reserved for a literary movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.72.

From Freud it gains a vielw of the determinism of the iner and subconscious self. . actions. Naturalism (cont.72.) • …conceived as the world of objects. Naturalism is a response to the revolution in thought that science has produced. and forces that yield their secrets to objective scientific inquiry.

.72. Naturalism (cont. Pessimistic about human capabilities– life is a vicious trap. hunger.) • Naturalist ic worlks tend to emphasize either a biological or socioeconomic determinism. frank in portrayal of humans and animals being driven by fundamental urges—fear. and sex.

Naturalism Stephen Crane .72.

73. Nobel prize • The Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Bernhard Nobel willed the income from practically his entire estate for the establishment of annual in the literature and other fields. .

and some of the literature is not notably idealistic. however. in practice. . the prize rewards recipient’s total career. the literature prize was to go to the person who had produced during the year the most eminent piece of work in the field of idealistic literature. Nobel prize (cont.73.) • Originally.

Nobel prize Ernest Hemingway 1954 T.73.S. Eliot 1948 William Golding 1983 .

especially one involving crime. . complex. and pessimistic. that is notably dark. brooding cynical. noir • An adjective taken over from the phrase FILM NOIR to apply to any work.74.

net/wp-content/uploads/2006/06/irish%20noir.slushpile.74. noir http://www.jpg .

… .75. • Nonfiction Novel is a classification offered by Truman Capote for his in Cold Blood. novel (and nonfiction novel) • Novel is used in its broadest sense to designate any extended fictional narrative almost always in prose.

including an nonlinear time sequence and access to inner states of mind and feeling not commonly present in historical writing.75. novel (and nonfiction novel) • …when which a historical event is described in a way that exploits some of the devices of fiction. .

D.75. Salinger Charlotte Perkins Gilman . novel (and nonfiction novel) J.

―Great literature is simply language charged with meaning to the utmost possible degree.‖ -Ezra Pound .

76. . but not as long or involved as a NOVEL. longer than a short story. novella • A short tale or short story. a book of 50-100 pages.

novella .76.

and dealing with one theme. unified strain of exalted lyrical verse. ode • A single. directed to a single purpose.77. .

77. ode John Keats .

. Oedipus Complex • In psychoanalysis a libidinal feeling that develops in a child. between the ages of three and six. especially a male child. This attachment is generally accompanied by hostility to the parent of the child’s own sex. for the parent of the opposite sex.78.

78. Oedipus Complex (cont.) Oedipus & the Sphinx .

and telling all. seeing. It is characterized by freedom in the shifting from the exterior world to the inner selves of a number of… . omniscient point of view • The POINT OF VIEW in a work of fiction in which the narrator is capable of knowing.79.

and freedom of the narrator to comment on the meaning of actions. . omniscient point of view • …characters.79. A freedom in movement in both time and place.

omniscient point of view George Orwell’s 1984 Joseph Stalin .79.

79. omniscient point of view .

79. omniscient point of view .

79. omniscient point of view .

‖ -Mark Twain .―To my mind that literature is best and most enduring which is characterized by a noble simplicity.

‖ . onomatopoeia • Words that by their sound suggest their meaning: ―hiss.‖ ―sizzle.‖ ―whirr.80.‖ ―buzz.

onomatopoeia .80.

from the Greek meaning ―sharp-dull. ―Oxymoron‖ itself is an oxymoron.‖ . oxymoron • A self-contradictory combination of worlds or smaller verbal units.81.

oxymoron .81.

palindrome • Writing that reads the same for left to right and from right to left.82. such as the word ―civic‖ or the statement attributed to Napoleon. ―Able was I ere I saw Elba.‖ .

82. palindrome .

palindrome Racecar Hannah I did roll--or did I? Poop .82.

the principle of parallelism dictates that coordinate ideas should have coordinate presentation. . parallelism • Such an arrangement that one element of equal importance with another is similarly developed and phrased.83.

83. parallelism .

84. paraphrase • A restatement of an idea in such a way as to retrain the meaning while changing the diction and form. A paraphrase is often an amplification… .

. paraphrase • …of the original for the purpose of clarity. though the term is also used for any rather general restatement of an expression or passage.84.

paraphrase .84.

parody • A composition imitating another.85. It is designed to ridicule a work or its style or author. . piece. usually serious.

85. parody .

and literature is not read.―Ernest: What is the difference between literature and journalism? Gilbert: Oh! journalism is unreadable.‖ -Oscar Wilde .

The term is widely used to refer to a ―second half‖ created by an author and through whom the narrative is told…. . persona • Literally.86. a mask.

. that is. a voice not directly the author’s but created by the author and through which the author speaks.86. persona • …The persona can be not a character but ―an implied author‖.

86. persona John Berryman .

87. ideas. and animate objects with human form. abstractions. personification • A figure that endows animals. intelligence and emotions. . the representing of imaginary creatures or things as having human personalities.

87. personification .

88. Petrarchan Sonnet • The ITALIAN SONNET –A SONNET divided into an OCTAVE rhyming abbaabba and a SESTET rhyming cdecde. .

88. Petrarchan Sonnet Petrarch .

Aristotle maintained. plot • Although an indispensable part of all fiction and drama.89. should have unity: . plot is a concept about which there has been much disagreement. A plot.

‖ .89. the structural union of the parts being such that. the whole will be disjointed and disturbed. plot • …it should ―imitate one action and that a whole. if any one of them is displaced or removed.

89. plot .

Peirce in 1878. . first used by C.90. describing a doctrine that determines value through the test of consequences or utility.S. pragmatism • A term.

90. pragmatism .

‖ -Oscar Wilde . but molds it to its purpose.―Literature always anticipates life. It does not copy it.

a poem so entitled may itself be lengthy. .91. prelude • A short poem. Rarely. prefixed to a long poem or to a section of a long poem. as in the case of Wordsworth’s famous Prelude. although Wordsworth’s Prelude was written as an introduction to a much longer but incomplete work. introductory in character.

prelude .91.

92. prologue

• An introduction most frequently associated with drama and especially common in England in the plays of Restoration and the eighteenth century.

92. prologue

93. Prose poem

• A POEM printed as a PROSE, with both margins justified.

93. Prose poem

94. protagonist • The chief character in a work. The word was originally applied to the ―first‖ actor in early Greek drama. The actor was added to the CHORUS and was its leader; …

94. protagonist
• …hence the continuing meaning of protagonist and the ―first‖ or chief player. In Greek drama AGON is contest, the protagonist and the ANTAGONIST, the second most important character, are contestants.

94. protagonist (cont.)


Pip from Great Expectations

antithesis. rhyme. originally preserved by oral tradition. or alliteration or parallelism. Proverbs may owe their appeal to metaphor. proverb • A saying that briefly and memorably expresses some recognized truth about life. though it may be transmitted in written literature as well. a play on words.95. .

95. proverb .

―One may recollect generally that certain thoughts or facts are to be found in a certain book.‖ -Horace Binney .who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard. but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy.

. Pulitzer Prize • Annual prizes for journalism. and music. awarded annually since 1917 by the School of Journalism and the Board of Trustees of Columbia University. The prizes are supported by a bequest from Joseph Pulitzer. literature.96.

96. Pulitzer Prize John Steinbeck 1940 Margaret Mitchell 1937 Grapes of Wrath Gone with the Wind .

Robert Frost’s ―In a Disused Graveyard‖ consists of four quatrains. quatrain • A stanza of four lines. in iambic tetrameter. . each in a different rhyme scheme.97.

97. quatrain .

. fidelity to actuality in its representation. and in this sense it has been a significant element in almost every school of writing. Realism • Realism is. in the broadest literary sense. a term loosely synonymous with VERISIMILITURD.98.

Realism .98.

99. refrain

• One or more words repeated at intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza. The most regular is the use of the same line at the close of each stanza (as is common in BALLAD).

99. refrain

100. Renaissance • This word, meaning ―rebirth,‖ is commonly applied to the period of transition from the medieval to the modern world in Western Europe.

100. Renaissance
Commonwealth Interregnum (16491660), Early Tudor Age (c. 1500-1557), Elizabethan Age (1558-1603), Jacobean Age (1603-1625), Caroline Age (1625-1642)

100. Renaissance

―The oldest books are only just out to those who have not read them.‖ -Samuel Butler

101. requiem
• A chant embodying a preayer for the repse of the dead’ a dirge; a solemn mass beginning as in Requiem aeternam dona eis, Donime. In our time the word has been broadened to mean almost anything sad.

101. requiem

107. resolution (as in plot)

• The events following the CLIMAX. Synonym for FALLING ACTION. • Shows what is resolved in the end of a work.

107. resolution (as in plot)

102. rhyme scheme
• The pattern in which RHYME sounds occur in a stanza. Rhyme schemes, for the purpose of analysis, are usually presented by the assignment of the same letter of the alphabet to each similar sound in a stanza.

102. rhyme scheme

rhythm (as in poetry) • The passage of regular or approximately equivalent time intervals between definite events or the recurrence of specific sound or kinds of sound.103. .

103. rhythm (as in poetry) .

104. rising action • The part of a dramatic PLOT that has to do with the COMPLICATION of the action. It begins with the EXCITING FORCE. . and proceeds to the CLIMAX. gains the interest and power as the opposing groups come into CONFILICT (the hero usually being in the ascendancy).

104.) . rising action (cont.

.105. romance • The term romance has had special meanings as a kind of fiction since the early years of the novel.

105. romance .

‖ -Chamfort .―What one knows best is…what one has learned not from books but as a result of books. through the reflections to which they have given rise.

106. Romanticism • The freeing of the artist and writer from restraints and rules and suggesting that phase of individualism marked by the encouragement of revolutionary political ideas. The term designates a literary and philosophical theory… .

.106. and it places the individual. making literature valuable as an expression of unique feelings and particular attitudes. at the center of art. therefore. Romanticism • that tends to see the individual at the center of all life.

Romanticism—William Worsdworth .106.

. or minor characters. Round characters tend to be more fully developed and described than flat.round character • A round character is a major character in a work of fiction who encounters conflict and is changed by it.

round character—Chief Bromden .

or deriding vice. etc. ridicule. denouncing. in exposing. . sarcasm. or the like. folly. satire • A work or manner that blends a censorious attitude with humor and wit for improving human institutions or humanity. Eugene… • the use of irony.108. In America.

George Kaufman and Moss Hart. Sinclair Lewis. Edith Wharton.108. Marquand. . Two major types: FORMAL SATIRE and INDIRECT SATIRE. and Joseph Heller have commented satirically on human beings and their institutions. satire • O’Neill. John P.

108. satire .

scansion • A system for describing conventional rhythms by dividing lines into FEET. indicating the locations of binomial ACCENTS. and counting the syllables. .109.

109. scansion .

110. schema • The mental connections made in the mind—what controls learning and behavior. . that which fascinates and compels. • Psychologically.

) Laurence Fishburne from Othello .110. schema (cont.

‖ -Lord Chesterfield .―The easiest books are generally the best. for whatever author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.

. or hypotheses form the basis. assumptions. of adventures in the future. on other planets in other dimensions in time or space. by logical extrapolation. science fiction • A form of fantasy in which scientific facts. or under new variants of scientific law.111.

science fiction Alien vs. Predator .111.

111. science fiction Ray Bradbury .

. sometimes limited to linguistic meaning.112. and sometimes used to discriminate between surface and substance. semantics • The study of meaning.

112. semantics Michel Foucault .

semiotics • The study of the rules that enable social phenomena. it deals not with the simple relation… . considered as SIGNS. When semiotics is used in literary criticism.113. to have meaning.

but with literary conventions. or received interpretations of literary devices at particular times.113. . such as those of prosody. genre. semiotics • …between sign and significance.

semiotics Jacques Derrida .113.

especially the conscious effort to induce emotion in order to enjoy it. Sentimentalism • The term is used in two senses: (1) an overindulgence in emotion.114. (2) an optimistic overemphasis of the goodness of humanity (SENSIBILITY). .

114. Sentimentalism .

It is called the Shakespearean sonnet because Shakespeare was its most distinguished practitioner.115. . rhyming abab cdcd efef gg. Shakespearean Sonnet • The ENGLISH SONNET.

115. Shakespearean Sonnet .

―Let us answer a book of ink with a book of flesh and blood.‖ -Ralph Waldo Emerson .

000 words. short story • A short story is a relatively brief fictional NARATIVE in PROSE. it may range in length from the SHORT-SHORT STORY of 500 words up the the ―long-short story‖ of 12.116. .000 to 15.

116. short story .

The two basic sonnet types are the ITALIAN or PETRARCHAN and the ENGLISH or SHAKESPEAREAN. sonnet • A poem almost invariable of fourteen lines and following one of several set rhyme schemes.117. .

sonnet Petrarch .117.

‖ ―exit‖ or ―exeunt. style. stage directions • Material that an author. prompter.‖ and ―aside. editor. attitude. performer. Some of the simplest and oldest are ―enter. character. or quality of a speech. manner. or action. or other person adds to a text to indicate movement.‖ .118.

stage directions .118.

static character • A character who changes little if at all. Things happen to the static characters without modifying their interior selves.119. Opposite of dynamic. .

static character Henry Higgins .119.

rhyme scheme. However. metrical form. in which case the stanza is a unit like a prose paragraph. and. stanza • A recurrent grouping of two or more verse lines in terms of length. the division into stanzas is sometimes mad according to thought as well as form.120. often. .

120. stanza .

‖ -Henry Ford . they muss up my mind.―I don’t like to read books.

and a witty clownish servant are examples. stock character • Conventional character types. melancholy man. disguised romantic heroine. .121. A high-thinking vengeanceseeking hero. a court fool.

―little old man. stock character • Eliot's ―Gerontion‖ is a gerontion—the world itself is the name of a favorite stock character of Greek (and later) comedy: the geezer.121.‖ . codger.

121. stock character Tom Robinson in To Kill a Mockingbird .

form the lowest prespeech level to the highest fully articulated level of rational thought. Stream of Consciousness • The total range of awareness and emotive-mental response of an individual. .122.

Stream of Consciousness James Joyce .122.

Surrealism • A movement in art emphasizing the expression of the imagination as realized in dreams and presented without conscious control.123. .

Surrealism William Burroughs .123.

Chief = oppressed peoples. symbolism • In its broad sense symbolism is the use of one object to represent or suggest another. hope. Monopoly = men’s attempt to control something . Men = people in world. Control panel = ???. Ward = society. the serious and extensive use of SYMBOLS. Nurse = oppression. McMurphy = change. or.124. in literature. awareness.

symbolism .124.

symposium • A Greek world meaning ―a drinking together‖ or banquet. The world later came to mean discussion by different persons of a single topic or a collection of speeches or essays on a given subject. .125.

symposium .125.

because one has got through it.―One always tends to overpraise a long book. Forster .‖ -E.M.

synopsis • A summary of the main points of a composition so made as to show the relation of parts to the whole. A synopsis is usually more connected than an outline. an ABSTIACT.126. because it is likely to be given in complete sentences. .

synopsis .126.

syntax • Syntax is the rule-governed arrangement of worlds in sentences. Syntax seems to be that level of language that most distinguishes poetry from prose. .127.

127. syntax .

usually resulting form the superhuman abilities of a character. and common speech to recount extravagantly impossible happenings. . tall tale • A kind of humorous tale. that uses realistic detail a literal manner. common on the American frontier.128.

128. tall tale Pecos Bill and Slue-Foot Sue .

tall tale John Henry .128.

Theatre of the Absurd • A term invented by Martin Esslin for the kind of drama that presents a view of the absurdity of the human condition by abandoning of usual or rational devices and by the used of nonrealistic form.129. .

129. . Theatre of the Absurd • It expounds and existential ideology and views its task as essentially metaphysical. The most widely acclaimed play of the school is Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot (1953).

129. Theatre of the Absurd Samuel Beckett .

‖ . Both theme and thesis imply a subject and a predicate of some kind—not just vice in general. theme • A central idea. but some such proposition as ―Vice seems more interesting than virtue but turns out to be destructive. say.130.

130. theme .

‖ -Ernest Hemingway .―All good books are alike in that they are truer than if they had really happened.

The term is also used for the paper written to support the thesis. .131. thesis • An attitude or position on a problem taken by a writer or speaker with the purpose of proving or supporting it.

thesis .131.

tone • Tome has been used for the attitudes toward the subject and toward the audience implied in literary work. intimate. . solemn. Tone may be formal. informal. ironic. condescending.132. or many another possible attitudes. playful. serious. sombre.

132. tone

133. tour de force

• A feat of strength and virtuosity. Tour de force is used in criticism to refer to works that make outstanding demonstrations of skill.

133. tour de force

134. tragedy • A term with many meanings and applications. In drama it refers to a particular kind of play, the definition of which was established by Aristotle’s Poetics, in narrative, particularly in Middle Ages, it refers to a body of work recounting the fall of a persons of high degree.

134. tragedy

135. tragic flaw
• The theory that there is a flaw in the tragic hero that causes his or her downfall. The theory has been revised or refuted by criticism that considers the supposed flaw as an integral and even defining part to the protagonist's character.

135. tragic flaw

‖ -Elbert Hubbard .―I do not read a book: I hold a conversation with the author.

a philosophical ROMANTICISM reaching America a generation or two… . a form of idealism. Transcendentalism • A reliance of the intuition and the conscience.136.

Transcendentalists believed in living close to nature and taught the dignity of manual labor and in democracy and individualism. Transcendentalism • …after it developed in Europe. .136.

136. Transcendentalism Thomas Cole The Voyage of Life: Youth 1842 .

Transcendentalism Henry David Thoreau Ralph Waldo Emerson .136.

trope • In rhetoric a trope is a FIGURE OF SPEECH involving a ―turn‖ or change of sense—the use of a word in a sense other than the literal.137. . in this sense figures of comparison as well as ironical expressions are tropes.

trope Example of irony .137.

137. trope Example of irony .

such as those in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and George Orwell’s 1984. DYSTOPIA. .138.‖ is the term applied to unpleasant imaginary places. meaning ―bad place. utopia • A fiction describing an imaginary ideal world.

utopia Charlotte Perkins Gilman .138.

and (2) as a name given generally to metrical composition. verse (as in poetry) • Used in two senses: (1) as a unit of poetry. .139. in which case it has the same significance as STANZA or LINE.

verse (as in poetry) Robert Lowell Sylvia Plath .139.

The term is also applied to SHORT-SHORT STORIES less than 500 words in length. .140. vignette • A SKETCH or brief narrative characterized by precision and delicacy.

vignette Sandra Cisneros .140.

‖ -Franz Kafka .―Books are a narcotic.

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