NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM

ABCs OF CHILDHOOD VACCINES

Immunization

NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

Immunization

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

Terms To Remember
• Hib: Short for Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hib is a bacterial infection that usually strikes children under 5 and is a cause of infection of the blood, brain, lungs, throat, bones, and joints. Meningitis: A serious infection of the surface of the brain and spinal cord, leading to mental retardation, deafness, and even death Polio: A viral disease that may lead to paralysis and death

Immunization

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

Vaccination Works! Measles
• Let’s look at the history of measles. 1958-1962: Over a half a million cases of measles are reported each year. 432 measles-related deaths occur on average each year.

Measles vaccine is licensed. By 2000, only 81 cases are reported in all of the U.S.!

1958

1962

1963

2000
Immunization

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

Vaccination Works! Hib Meningitis
• • • Consider the history of Hib meningitis. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease usually strikes children under 5 years of age. Hib can cause blood poisoning or meningitis. First Hib vaccine is licensed. Fewer than 10 Hib deaths are reported.

1985 and before: An estimated 20,000 children develop Hib every year, with 600 deaths.

1985 and before

1985

1998
Immunization

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

Vaccination Works! Polio
• Polio, caused by a virus, was once America’s most feared disease, causing death or paralysis. Its most famous victim was President Franklin Roosevelt. 1951-1954: Paralytic polio strikes nearly 20,000 Americans every year, killing nearly 1,900. First polio vaccine is licensed.

Today there are no reports of polio in the United States, but the disease still exists in some parts of the world.

1951

1954

1955

TODAY
Immunization

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

Some Diseases Are So Rare, Why Keep Immunizing?
• • Whooping cough, chickenpox, and other diseases still exist in the United States, causing serious illness and even death. When children aren’t immunized, diseases can return.

In Great Britain, people stopped immunizing for pertussis (whooping cough) in the early 70s. Within just a few years, a pertussis epidemic occurred—100,000 cases with 36 deaths.

In Japan similar events occurred: a decline in childhood pertussis vaccinations during the 70s, was followed by a pertussis epidemic—13,000 cases, 41 deaths—in 1979.
Immunization

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

A Disease Is More Than An Illness.
• Sick children are kept out of school. A child with chickenpox, for example, can miss one or more weeks of school. A child with a vaccine-preventable disease can experience physical pain, discomfort, trauma, long-term disabilities, or even death from an illness that could have been prevented with a vaccine. A sick child can also infect parents, sisters, brothers, other family members, friends, and classmates too!

Immunization

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

A Disease Is More Than An Illness.
• A sick child with a prolonged illness can impact a family’s financial resources. Parents must be there to care for a child, meaning loss of pay or use of vacation time. Sickness drains other financial resources. For example, for every dollar invested in the Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, the United States saves $27 in costs such as work-loss, death, and disability.

Immunization

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

Key Facts
• Measles, Hib and polio are diseases that used to kill or handicap many young children. All have been controlled with vaccination. But when vaccination rates fall, epidemics can occur, because disease-causing viruses and bacteria still exist in nature. Immunizing protects the health of children and the emotional and financial well-being of their families and communities. Immunizing also protects the health of children who cannot be vaccinated, such as children with immune deficiencies or weakened immune systems due to medical treatments like chemotherapy.
Immunization

RISKS OF NOT VACCINATING

Additional Resources
• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website: www.cdc.gov. Click “Vaccines & Immunizations,” then click “NIP Home Page” in the right column or go directly to www.cdc.gov/nip National Immunization Hotline: 1-800-232-2522 Parent’s Guide to Childhood Immunization: Publication available online at www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/ For information on vaccine testing and licensing: www.fda.gov For information about local health care resources: www.naccho.gov or look under “public health” in the blue pages of your local phone book For information on children’s health insurance: www.insurekidsnow.gov Additional ABCs of Childhood Vaccines slide shows cover the following topics: Vaccine Safety; How Vaccines Work; Natural Immunity; Primary Vaccinations

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