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edible oils derived from plants liquid at room temperature composed of triglycerides (fats):

saturated, unsaturated.

Mechanical extraction

Oils can also be removed via mechanical extraction, termed "crushing" or "pressing."

Solvent extraction

The processing vegetable oil in commercial applications is commonly done by chemical extraction, using solvent extracts, which produces higher yields and is quicker and less expensive.

Hydrogenation

conversion of various unsaturated radicals of fatty glycerides into more highly or completely saturated glycerides by the addition of hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst.

Deodorization

removes most of the odor-causing compounds and also destroys many of the color-producing pigments present.

The relevant part of the plant may be placed under

pressure to extract the oil, giving an expressed oil


Oils may also be extracted from plants by

dissolving parts of plants in water or another solvent


The solution may be separated from the plant material

and concentrated, giving an extracted or leached oil

Palm oil

most widely produced tropical oil. Popular in West African and Brazilian cuisine Also used to make biofuel.

Cottonseed oil

seed of the cotton plant, important commercially for its oil and other products. Cottonseed oil is used in salad and cooking oils and, after hydrogenation, in shortenings and margarine. The cake, or meal, remaining after the oil is extracted is used in poultry and livestock feeds.

Coconut oil

obtained from the cleaned and crushed copra chiefly by pressing and solvent extraction. Coconut oil is a yellowish white solid that melts at 23 C (74 F)

Corn oil

edible oil obtainable from the seeds (kernels) of corn (maize), valued for its bland flavour and light colour.

Soybean oil

Its oil can be processed into margarine, shortening, and vegetarian cheeses. Industrially, the oil is used as an ingredient in paints, adhesives, fertilizers, sizing for cloth, linoleum backing, insect sprays, and fire extinguisher fluids.

Peanut oil

a clear oil with some applications as a salad dressing, and, due to its high smoke point, especially used for frying.

Rapeseed oil

(species Brassica napus), plant of the mustard family , native to Europe. Rape is an annual, 30 cm (1 foot) or more tall, with a long, usually thin taproot. Its leaves are smooth, bluish green, and deeply scalloped, and the bases of the upper leaves clasp the stem.

Safflower oil

Oil obtained from the seed is the chief modern use of the plant. Safflower oil does not yellow with age, making it useful in preparing varnish and paint.

Oil source

World consumption (million metric tons)

Notes

Palm

41.31

The most widely produced tropical oil, also used to make biofuel

Soybean

41.28

Accounts for about half of worldwide edible oil production

Rapeseed

18.24

One of the most widely used cooking oils, canola is a variety (cultivar) of rapeseed

Sunflower seed

9.91

A common cooking oil, also used to make biodiesel

Peanut

4.82

Mild-flavored cooking oil

Cottonseed

4.99

A major food oil, often used in industrial food processing

Palm kernel

4.85

From the seed of the African palm tree

Coconut

3.48

Used in soaps and cooking

Olive

2.84

Used in cooking, cosmetics, soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps