The first teacher of Rizal was his mother. On her lap, he learned at the age of three the alphabet and the prayers. “My mother ”, wrote Rizal in his students memoirs, “taught me how to read and to say haltingly the humble prayers which I raised fervently to God.”

. Doña Teodora was patient.former classmate of Rizal’s father . his parents employed private tutors to give him lessons at home. .instructed Jose in Spanish and Latin. conscientious and understanding.He died five months later. Maestro Celestino Maestro Lucas Padua Leon Monroy .As a tutor. As Jose grew older.

where Jose was to lodge. reaching their destination after one and one-half hour’s drive.One Sunday afternoon in June. 1869. Jose. They proceed to their aunt’s house. after kissing the hands of his parents and tearful parting from his sisters . left Calamba for Biñan. . The two brothers rode in carromata.

That same night. “In the moonlight. my own town. Jose. in spite of the fact. “I remembered my home town.” . my idolized mother.” he recounted. Ah. that it was not as wealthy as Biñan. how sweet to me was Calamba. went sightseeing in the town. and my solicitous sisters. with his cousin named Leandro.

The school was in the house of the teacher. which was a small nipa hut about 30 meters from the home of Jose’s aunt.The next morning Paciano brought his younger brother to the school of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. .

with a sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward. thin.Jose described his teacher in Biñan as follows: “He was tall. and he used to wear a sinamay shirt. longnecked. . woven by the skilled hands of the women of Batangas.

Andres Salandanan challenged him to an arm-wrestling match.The two boys wrestled furiously in the classroom. defeated the bigger boy. . much to the glee of their classmates. Jose having learned the art of wrestling from his athletic Tio Manuel.

became apprentices of the old painter. who also loved painting. .Juancho. Jose Guevarra . an old painter and father-in-law of the school teacher. Jose and his classmate.

which consisted generally of a dish of rice and two dried small fish. I returned home and I went to the orchard to look for a mabolo to eat. if there was any. I heard the four o’clock Mass. or I studied my lesson at the hour and I went to Mass afterwards. and I went to class from which I .“Here was my life. Then I took breakfast.

If there was some special dish.” . I went home at once. I went to school at two and came out at five. I ate with them and afterwards I studied. Leandro and I took some of it to the house of his children. I prayed a short while with some nice cousins and I returned home.came out at ten o’clock. and I returned without saying a word.

“I studied my lesson. my nieces invited me to play in the street together with others. and afterwards I took my supper consisting Of one or two dishes of rice with an ayungin. We prayed and if there was a moon. Thank God that I never got sick away from my parents. I drew a little.” .

and other subjects. the day was unusual when I was not laid out on a bench and given five or six blows. He surpassed them all in Spanish. Latin. Jose beat all Biñan boys. “In spite of the reputation I had of being a good boy.In academic studies.” .

Before the Christmas season in 1870. informing him of the arrival of the steamer Talim which would take him from Biñan to Calamba . Jose received a letter from his sister Saturnina.

1870. who took care of him. a friend of his father. December 17. after one year and a half of schooling in that town On board was a Frenchman named Arturo Camps. .He left Biñan on Saturday afternoon.

) ) magnified the failed mutiny into a “revolt” for Philippine independence .The Spanish authorities. and their supporters (Jose Ma. in order to liquidate Fathers Mariano Gomez. leaders of the secular movement to Filipinize the Philippine parishes. Basa. Regidor. etc. and Jacinto Zamora. Attorneys Joaquin Pardo de Tavera and Antonio Ma. Jose Burgos.

and Zamora). despite the archbishop ‘s plea for clemency because of their innocence. February 17. . 1872. Gom-Bur-Za (Gomez. by order of Governor General Izquierdo. were executed at sunrise. Burgos.Accordingly. Their martyrdom was deeply mourned by the Rizal family and many other patriotic families in the Philippines.

in 1891. he said: And later. Seventeen years later written in Paris. he dedicated his second novel. El Filibusterismo. 1889. to Gom-Bur-Za. .The martyrdom of Gom-Bur-Za in 1872 truly inspired Rizal to fight the evils of Spanish tyranny and redeem his oppressed people. to Mariano Ponce. April 18.

Jose Alberto. Doña Teodora was suddenly arrested on a malicious charge that she and her brother.Before June of 1872. tried to poison the latter’s perfidious. tragedy struck the Rizal family. .

the sadistic Spanish lieutenant forced her to walk from Calamba to Santa Cruz. a distance of 50 kilometers. After arresting Doña Teodora.This lieutenant happened to have an ax to grind against the Rizal family. . because at one time Don Francisco (Rizal’s father) refused to give him fodder for his horse.

but after how long? After two and a half years. accusers.” . and even her enemies.“Our mother was unjustly snatched away from us and by whom? By some men who had been our friends and whom we treated as honored guests. We learned later that our mother was defended by Messrs. She finally succeeded to be acquitted and vindicated in the eyes of her judges. the most famous lawyers of Manila. Francisco de Marcaida and Manuel Marzan.

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