This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
AP Physics B
Life and Atoms
Every time you breathe you are taking in atoms. Oxygen atoms to be exact. These atoms react with the blood and are carried to every cell in your body for various reactions you need to survive. Likewise, every time you breathe out carbon dioxide atoms are released. The cycle here is interesting. TAKING SOMETHING IN. ALLOWING SOMETHING OUT!
As you probably already know an atom is the building block of all matter. It has a nucleus with protons and neutrons and an electron cloud outside of the nucleus where electrons are orbiting and MOVING. Depending on the ELEMENT, the amount of electrons differs as well as the amounts of orbits surrounding the atom.
This state is AWAY from the nucleus.When the atom gets excited or NOT To help visualize the atom think of it like a ladder. The bottom of the ladder is called GROUND STATE where all electrons would like to exist. As energy is RELEASED the electron can relax by moving to a new energy level or rung down the ladder. If energy is ABSORBED it moves to a new rung on the ladder or ENERGY LEVEL called an EXCITED STATE. .
If an electron is EXCITED. .Energy Levels Yet something interesting happens as the electron travels from energy level to energy level. We call these leaps from energy level to energy level QUANTUM LEAPS. that means energy is ABSORBED and therefore a PHOTON is absorbed. If an electron is DE-EXCITED. Since a PHOTON is emitted that means that it MUST have a certain wavelength. that means energy is RELEASED and therefore a photon is released.
Energy of the Photon We can calculate the ENERGY of the released or absorbed photon provided we know the initial and final state of the electron that jumps energy levels. .
. TWO photons will be emitted.Energy Level Diagrams To represent these transitions we can construct an ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAM Note: It is very important to understanding that these transitions DO NOT have to occur as a single jump! It might make TWO JUMPS to get back to ground state. If that is the case. each with a different wavelength and energy.
with TWO being the visible range ( RED. As a result. Notice that they give us the energy of each energy level. VIOLET) and ONE being OUTSIDE the visible range (INFRARED) . photons are emitted. This will allow us to calculate the CHANGE in ENERGY that goes to the emitted photon. Calculate the POSSIBLE wavelengths of the emitted photons. This particular sample will release three different wavelengths.Example An electron releases energy as it moves back to its ground state position.
It is heavily used in Astronomy and Remote Sensing. When an electron gets excited inside a SPECIFIC ELEMENT. . the electron releases a photon.Energy levels Application: Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is an optical technique by which we can IDENTIFY a material based on its emission spectrum. There are too many subcategories to mention here but the one you are probably the most familiar with are flame tests. This photon’s wavelength corresponds to the energy level jump and can be used to indentify the element.
Different Elements = Different Emission Lines .
If you look at the light with a diffraction grating the lines will appear as sharp spectral lines occurring at specific energies and specific wavelengths. This phenomenon allows us to analyze the atmosphere of planets or galaxies simply by looking at the light being emitted from them.Emission Line Spectra So basically you could look at light from any element of which the electrons emit photons. .
Top number = mass number = #protons + neutrons. It is represented by the letter "Z" .Radioactivity Before we begin to discuss the specifics of radioactive decay we need to be certain you understand the proper NOTATION that is used. To the left is your typical radioactive isotope.Nuclear Physics . It is represented by the letter "A“ Bottom number = atomic number = # of protons in the nucleus.
Since Carbon is always going to be element #6.14 . yet it has a different MASS. Carbon .12 Carbon . This is a result of have extra neutrons. we can write Carbon in terms of its mass instead.Nuclear Physics – Notation & Isotopes An isotope is when you have the SAME ELEMENT.
“Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content?” . Albert Einstein publishes a 2nd major theory called the Energy-Mass Equivalence in a paper called.Einstein – Energy/Mass Equivalence In 1905.
.Einstein – Energy/Mass Equivalence Looking closely at Einstein’s equation we see that he postulated that mass held an enormous amount of energy within itself. The large amount of energy comes from the fact that the speed of light is squared. We call this energy BINDING ENERGY or Rest mass energy as it is the energy that holds the atom together when it is at rest.
Energy Unit Check m EB mc Joule kg 2 s W Fx Joule Nm m Fnet ma N kg 2 s 2 m m E W kg 2 m kg 2 s s 2 2 .
Mass Defect The nucleus of the atom is held together by a STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE. This difference in mass (m) is called the mass defect. Energy need to break to break the nucleus into protons and neutrons is called the Binding Energy Einstein discovered that the mass of the separated particles is greater than the mass of the intact stable nucleus to begin with. the more energy needed to break it apart. . The more stable the nucleus.
Mass Defect .Explained The extra mass turns into energy holding the atom together. .
Mass Defect – Example .
Radioactivity When an unstable nucleus releases energy and/or particles. .
Radioactive Decay There are 4 basic types of radioactive decay Alpha – Ejected Helium Beta – Ejected Electron Positron – Ejected AntiBeta particle Gamma – Ejected Energy You may encounter protons and neutrons being emitted as well 4 2 He e 0 1 0 1 e 0 0 1 1 p n 1 0 .
Alpha Decay 240 94 Pu U He 236 92 4 2 .
Alpha Decay Applications 241 95 Am He ? 4 2 A Z Americium-241. Smoke particles from fire that enter the air gap reduce the current flow. A small current is passed through that ionized air. sounding the alarm. . is used in smoke detectors. an alpha-emitter. The alpha particles ionize air between a small gap.
lead us to discover the neutrino. did however. 228 88 Ra e Ac 0 1 228 89 . Beta decay.Beta Decay There aren’t really any applications of beta decay other than Betavoltaics which makes batteries from beta emitters.
potassium-40. nitrogen13. and iodine-121. 230 91 Pa e Th 0 1 230 90 . oxygen-15.Positron Isotopes which undergo this decay and thereby emit positrons include carbon-11. fluorine-18.Beta Plus Decay .
.Positron emission tomography (PET) Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or picture of functional processes in the body.Beta Plus Decay Application . which is introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer). Images of tracer concentration in 3dimensional space within the body are then reconstructed by computer analysis.
Gamma Decay 240 94 Pu Pu 240 94 0 0 .
They can be used in CT Scans and radiation therapy. . They can be used to kill living organisms and sterilize medical equipment before use. Gamma Rays are used to view stowaways inside of a truck. This technology is used by the Department of Homeland Security at many ports of entry to the US.Gamma Decay Applications Gamma rays are the most dangerous type of radiation as they are very penetrating.
Significant Nuclear Reactions . It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy.Fusion 2 1 H H He n 3 1 4 2 1 0 nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple like-charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus. .
surrounding the fusion targets.IFE In an IFE (Inertial Fusion Energy) power plant. many (typically 5-10) pulses of fusion energy per second would heat a lowactivation coolant. The coolant in turn would transfer the fusion heat to a power conversion system to produce electricity. such as lithium-bearing liquid metals or molten salts.Fusion Applications . .
The most common nuclear fuels are 235U (the isotope of uranium with an atomic mass of 235 and of use in nuclear reactors) and 239Pu (the isotope of plutonium with an atomic mass of 239). n U Ba Kr 3 n energy . which in turn release more neutrons and cause more fissions. These fuels break apart into a bimodal range of chemical elements with atomic masses centering near 95 and 135 u (fission products).Fission 1 235 141 92 1 0 92 56 36 0 Nuclear fission differs from other forms of radioactive decay in that it can be harnessed and controlled via a chain reaction: free neutrons released by each fission event can trigger yet more events.Significant Nuclear Reactions .
in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an explosion. controlled. and sustained at a steady rate. a fission bomb (not to be confused with the fusion bomb). is a fission reactor designed to liberate as much energy as possible as rapidly as possible. A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain fission reactions are initiated.Fission Bomb One class of nuclear weapon. as opposed to a nuclear bomb. otherwise known as an atomic bomb or atom bomb. before the released energy causes the reactor to explode (and the chain reaction to stop). .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.