PROCESS CONTROL

Prepared by: Dave Danque

WHAT IS PROCESS CONTROL?
Many different operations are performed in an industrial machine to manufacture a product. Each one of these operations is referred to as process. Process control is the automatic operations performed by an industrial manufacturing machine.
Prepared by: Dave Danque

EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURING MACHINES

Metal Cutting Machine
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Metal Forming Machine
Prepared by: Dave Danque

PROCESS MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
Raw materials are manipulated through various processes to manufacture goods and provide public services. These products and services are provided by either in BATCH PROCESSES or by CONTINUOUS PROCESSES.
Prepared by: Dave Danque

I. CATEGORIES OF CONTROL
Prepared by: Dave Danque and Jane – Josanin Elizan

A. BATCH PROCESSES
• Products are made one batch at a time.

NEWSPAPER

BREAD

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A. BATCH PROCESSES
• Usually in smaller quantities than the products produced by the continuous method. • A sequence of steps is performed. • Products are made by putting ingredients into a vessel, called a reactor, and then causing them to react to form a product.
Prepared by: Dave Danque

A. BATCH PROCESSES

BATCH REACTOR

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A. BATCH PROCESSES
• The type of material used to construct the reactor depends on factors such as: (1) its capability to withstand the corrosiveness of the ingredients inside, and (2) its capability not to contaminate the contents inside.
Prepared by: Dave Danque

1. CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
a) Controlling Materials the Quantity of Raw

• Determining the weight of the ingredients inside the reactor with a pressure sensor.

• Using a level sensor to read the height of the ingredients in the vessel.
Prepared by: Jane – Josanin Elizan

Prepared by: Jane – Josanin Elizan

• Calculating the volumetric flow rate of a raw material being fed into the reactor by using a flowmeter.

Prepared by: Jane – Josanin Elizan

b) Controlling the Process Variables During the Reaction Cycle • The two most common variables that must be regulated to control the rate of reaction are the temperature and pressure.

• Applying thermal energy and maintaining the temperature at a certain level is critical to most batch processes.

Prepared by: Jane – Josanin Elizan

ENDOTHERMIC PROCESSES

EVAPORATING LIQUID WATER

BAKING BREAD
Prepared by: Jane – Josanin Elizan

EXOTHERMIC PROCESS

COMBUSTION OF FUELS LIKE COAL

SETTING OF CEMENT & CONCRETE
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•Most batch reactors use a thermal jacket and circulation coils

BATCH REACTOR

Prepared by: Jane – Josanin Elizan

c) Controlling Each Step in the Sequence

Feeding (Feeders)

Mixing (Mixing Plant with Tandem Vessel)
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Heating (Infrared Convection Oven)

Cooling (Fluid Bed Dryer)
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Reacting

Discharging
Prepared by: Jane – Josanin Elizan

Cleaning
Prepared by: Jane – Josanin Elizan

TYPES OF BATCH PROCESSES
Prepared by: Sheena Guiking

2. TYPES OF BATCH PROCESSES
A. Mixing/Blending involves combining two or more ingredients together and may only require a one-step process. • Example : Mixing paint

Prepared by: Sheena Guiking

B. Chemical Reaction involves combining two or more materials or reactants to form a product. The reaction usually occurs under the influence of temperature, pressure and agitation and by introducing a catalyst. • Example : Fertilizers

Prepared by: Sheena Guiking

C. Separation refers to the removal of an ingredient from the mixture. Another type of separation process is crystallization, which is the formation of a solid material from a solution, vapor, melted material, or solid that is in a different phase of the reaction. • Example : Pharmaceuticals

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D. Polymerization involves the combination of a large number of molecules to form a new product. • Example : Plastics, synthetic materials

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B. CONTINUOUS PROCESS

Prepared by: Lara Litusquen

• Raw materials are continuously passed through manufacturing equipment at a controlled rate, and the end product is continuously withdrawn. • Designed to manufacture a large volume of a particular product.

Prepared by: Lara Litusquen

• Examples of this:
CHEMICALS PETROLEUM

Prepared by: Lara Litusquen

CONTINUOUS PROCESS MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENTS
Prepared by: Lara Litusquen and Stephen John Trinidad

SCREENS AND ROLLERS ON A PAPER MACHINE

EXTRUDERS THAT SHAPE PLASTIC BAGS
Prepared by: Lara Litusquen

EVAPORATOR THAT PROCESSES LIQUIDS
Prepared by: Lara Litusquen

1. CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
A. Controlling the Quantity of Raw Materials • Materials can be: (1) granules, (2) powder, (3) pulp, (4) sewage, (5) water, and/or (6) petroleum.

Prepared by: Lara Litusquen

• The quantities of these materials are measured primarily by various types of flow sensors. Flow valves are used to vary the rate at which the raw materials are fed into the process.

FLOW VALVES
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b. Controlling Operating Parameters During the Process i. Temperature – heating and cooling

ii. Pressure – to raise the boiling temperature and to shorten the reaction time iii. Level – to determine the amount of material that is inside the vessel

Prepared by: Stephen John Trinidad

iv. Flow – to maintain temperature and to regulate pressure level V. Product Composition Composition – conditions of the product solution often affected by temperature, flow, level, and pressure Analyzer – a sensor used to measure status Analytical Control – controlling the composition of the product
Prepared by: Stephen John Trinidad

II. CLASSIFICATIONS OF CONTROL
Prepared by: Lailani Marie Delos Santos and Zyrill Mae Aguirre

• This process requires an addition of a feedback loop making it self-regulating. Its primary element is a sensor. The sensor’s output is the measured variable. The controller then compares feedback signal to the set point. An error signal determines which type of control signal to produce at its output. The control signal is the one being sent to the final control element. The manipulated variable, however, causes a change in the controlled variable.
Prepared by: Zyrill Mae Aguirre

2. CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROL
A. OPEN-LOOP CONTROL

Prepared by: Lailani Marie Delos Santos

• This process is controlled only by setpoint commands, without feedback measurement signals.

Prepared by: Lailani Marie Delos Santos

• Examples :

CAFETERIA DISHWASHERS

LAUNDRY MACHINES
Prepared by: Lailani Marie Delos Santos

• As an advantage, it is relatively inexpensive. But it has no control capabilities to make corrections if the process deviates from its required state.

Prepared by: Lailani Marie Delos Santos

B. CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL

Prepared by: Zyrill Mae Aguirre

CLOSED – LOOP TEMPERATURE PROCESS

Prepared by: Zyrill Mae Aguirre

PROCESS BEHAVIOR
• Variable – an element varies when an influence to which it is exposed causes change. • Change can happen when : - a disturbance appears -load demands vary - setpoints are adjusted • Step change – takes place over a small time interval Prepared by: Zyrill Mae Aguirre

ADVANCED CONTROL TECHNIQUES

Prepared by: Reofe Ellinore Flores

C. ADVANCED CONTROL TECHNIQUES 1. CASCADE CONTROL – designed to respond to changes in the controlled variable 2. FEED-FORWARD CONTROL – process must deviate from setpoint before control action is applied
Prepared by: Reofe Ellinore Flores

3.

RATIO CONTROL – proportionally control the flow of one ingredient based on the amount of flow of another ingredient.

4. ADAPTIVE CONTROL –accommodates non-linear processes

Prepared by: Reofe Ellinore Flores

FEEDBACK SYSTEM VERSUS FEEDFORWARD CONTROL
• A feedback system determines a correction that needs to be made after the controlled variable deviates from set point. While a feed-forward control is used when no variation from setpoint can be tolerated in a process or when a system is very slow in responding to corrective action.

Prepared by: Reofe Ellinore Flores

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