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VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF RAJASTHAN

INDIA HAS VARYING CLIMATIC CONDITIONS. FROM SNOW IN THE HIMALAYAS TO DESSERTS IN RAJASTHAN. FROM THE VERY WET CHERAPUNJEE TO THE SEMI-ARID GUJARAT. THE INDIAN STATES CAN BE BROADLY DIVIDED INTO FOUR BASIC CATEGORIES DEPENDING ON THEIR REGION. THEY ARE: NORTHERN EASTERN SOUTHERN WESTERN

WESTERN STATES OF INDIA

RAJASTHAN

GOA

GUJARAT

MAHARASHTRA

RAJASTHAN
Climatically, Rajasthan is the driest part of India Pre-Monsoon, which extends from April to June, is the hottest season, with temperatures ranging from 30C to 40C. In western Rajasthan the temperature may rise to 45C, particularly in May and June. At this time, Rajasthan's only hill station, Mt Abu registers the lowest temperatures. In the desert regions, the temperature drops in night. Prevailing winds are from the west and sometimes carry dust storms. The second season Monsoon extends from July to September, temperature drops but humidity increases and even there is slight drop in the temperature (30C to 33C). We have about 90% of our rains in this period. The Post-Monsoon period is from October to December. The average maximum temperature is 33C to 38C, and the minimum is between 18C and 20C.

RAJASTHAN
The fourth season is the Winter or Cold Season, from January to March. There is a marked variation in maximum and minimum temperatures and regional variations across the state. January is the coolest month of the year. And temperature may drop to 3C to 5 C in some regions of Rajasthan, like Shekhawati. There is slight precipitation in the north and north-eastern region of the state, and light winds, predominantly from the north and north-east. At this time, relative humidity ranges from 50% to 60% in the morning, and 25% to 35% in the afternoon. Given its varied topography, the climate of Rajasthan greatly varies throughout the state. In the west, Rajasthan is relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the southwestern part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly and more fertile. The climate varies throughout Rajasthan.

GUJARAT In gujarat also the weather varies in different regions. The places near the coast have a humid climate whereas the ones in the interiors experience a completely different climate. The Rann of Kutch region experiences an extreme climate. The summers are extremely hot while the winters are extremely cold. The coastal regions and the eastern belt of Gujarat experience a mild pleasant climate with moderate rainfall during the monsoons. On an average, the summers are extremely hot and dry in Gujarat. The day temperature is as high as 46C while at night it is 34 C.

GUJARAT In the winters, the weather is mild, pleasant and dry. The average temperature during day time is 29 C and 12 C during the night. The days are usually sunny and the sky is clear. The monsoon season extends from mid June to September. Before the monsoon, the temperatures are soaring high with an increased humidity in the air. The rain provides relief from the scorching heat. The temperature falls down to 38 C with high humidity, during the day and 27 C at night.

MAHARASHTRA
Maharashtra has typical monsoon climate, with hot, rainy and cold weather seasons. Tropical conditions prevail all over the state, and even the hill stations are not that cold. Dew, frost, hail can also be happened sometimes according to the seasonal weather. Summer: March, April and May are the hottest months. During April and May thunderstorms are common all over the state. Temperature varies between 22C-39C during this season. Winter: Cool dry spell, with clear skies gentle breeze and pleasant weather prevails from November to February. But the eastern part of Maharashtra sometimes receives some rainfall. Temperature varies between 12C-34C during this season.

MAHARASHTRA
Rainfall: : Rainfall starts normally in the first week of June. July is the wettest month in Maharashtra, while August too gets substantial rain. Monsoon starts its retreat with the coming of September from the state. Rainfall in Maharashtra differs from region to region. Thane, Raigad, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts, receive heavy rains of an average of 200 centimeters annually. But the districts of Nasik, Pune, Ahmednagar, Dhule, Jalgaon, Satara, Sangli, Solapur and parts of Kolhapur get rainfall less than 50 centimeters. Rainfall particularly concentrates to the Konkan and Sahyadrian Maharashtra. Central Maharashtra receives less rainfall. However, under the influence of the Bay of Bengal, eastern Vidarbha receives good rainfall in July, August and September.

GOA

The climate of Goa can, be summed up as coastal Being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, the climate of Goa is warm and humid for most of the year. The month of May is the hottest, with day-time temperatures touching 35"C (95"F). To top it, the heat is coupled with high humidity. The monsoons arrive around early June and provide a much needed respite from the heat. and receives the full blast of the Indian monsoon with sudden downpours and tropical thunderstorms. Most of Goa's annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September. It has a short cool season too which lasts between midDecember and February. These months are marked by cool nights with temperatures of about 20"C (68"F) and warm days of about 29"C (84"F). Humidity remains in moderate amounts. The nights are a few degrees cooler further inland, due to altitudinal gradation.

GOA
There are no extremes in temperature and no clear demarcations from one season to the other except for the monsoon. The average rainfall is approximately 325cms, the average daily hours of sunshine is nine to ten hours in summer and three to five hours during the monsoon During the two months preceding the onset of the monsoon the humidity increases dramatically, and the normally clear skies become hazy and then cloudy. During the monsoon, 250cm to 300cm of rain is normal, although in the Western Ghats the downpour is considerably high than on the coast

Indian vernacular architecture is the informal, functional architecture of structures, often in rural areas of India, built of local materials and designed to meet the needs of the local people. The builders of these structures are unschooled in formal architectural design and their work reflects the rich diversity of India's climate, locally available building materials, and the intricate variations in local social customs and craftsmanship. It has been estimated that worldwide close to 90% of all building is vernacular, meaning that it is for daily use for ordinary, local people and built by local craftsmen. The term vernacular architecture in general refers to the informal building of structures through traditional building methods by local builders without using the services of a professional architect. It is the most widespread form of building.

GENERAL ELEMENTS OF HOUSE IN RAJASTHAN ARE:Pavilions are used for open shelters served best during summer evenings in arid regions, or even in the warm humid regions, allowing a free flow of fresh air. Courtyard contributes to spatial quality beautifully by bringing in a subdued light, creating a peaceful environment. Also, the tropical climate of India demands air movement as well as shaded spaces for comfort. This open, yet protected spaces, become the heart of Indian living.

The height of the building compared to the width of the streets is large to create shaded cool environment for the pedestrians and other social activities on the streets In cases where normal low level dust swirls within the settlement the interiors of buildings are protected by almost blank walls with very small openings. All major streets are oriented almost in the East-West direction at right angles to the direction of dust storms.

The building facades have large number of projections like jharokhas and chajjas which provide shade to the facades. The front part of the facade which remains exposed are controlled by creating deeply carved patterns. Use of such devices minimizes the heat gain by providing shading due to texture. Such devices also result in increased convective transfer of heat because of increased surface area. In summer in day time when the major heat source is Sun the exposed textured surfaces will be cooler than plain surfaces. In evening when ambient conditions are cool the increase surface area helps in cooling it faster. However, an extended surface will warm up faster than a plain surface under winter conditions due to low solar altitude, therefore the location in context of these surfaces is very important.