with the introduction of an Atomic Energy Bill in the Constituent Assembly by India’s first prime minister. and outside of the safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency.Historical Background • India’s nuclear program was set up in 1948. . • As a non-signee to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. India was excluded from international trading on nuclear commodities for many years. • Its nuclear power plants were therefore built up largely without external help or consultation.

. the international trading ban was lifted by the Nuclear Suppliers Group.• In 2008. opening the door for foreign countries that wished to trade nuclear equipment and fuel with India. fenced for civilian (non-weaponry) purposes.

S & Canada for nuclear reactor • 1962: War with China • 1963: Two research reactors & four nuclear plants in operation .Timeline • 1947: India becomes independent • 1948: Atomic Energy Commission established • 1956: Negotiates with U.Indian Nuclear Energy.

• 1964: China detonates nuclear bomb • 1965: War with Pakistan over Kashmir • 1968: India refuses to sign nuclear nonproliferation treaty • 1974: India performs 15kt “Peaceful Nuclear Explosion”. • 1998: India detonates both fission and fusion devices . US & Canada suspend their nuclear cooperation with India.

Kargil War with Pakistan.• 1999: Indian population exceeds 1 billion. Pakistan threatens to use nuclear weapons • 2006: President Bush declares India a Nuclear Power • 2008: NSG approves trade with India.US-India Nuclear deal signed .

Stage-III would comprise power reactors using U-233 / thorium as fuel. . These reactors would also breed U-233 from thorium. Stage-II evisages construction of fast breeder reactors (FBRs) fuelled by plutonium produced in Stage-I.India’s three stage nuclear programme Stage-I envisages construction of natural uranium. Spent fuel from these reactors is reprocessed to obtain plutonium. heavy water moderated and cooled pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs).

• The company was registered as a Public Limited Company under • the Companies Act of1956 in September 1987. with the objective of operating atomic power stations and implementing atomic power projects for generation of electricity .NPCIL • Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited is a Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Government of India • it’s the only utility that deals with civilian nuclear power in India.

780MW.720 while we have an ambitious target of about 64. .Nuclear Plants of India • In India. 5 more plants under construction are expected to add another 2.000MW by 2032. we have 20 nuclear reactors in 6 nuclear power plants generating 4.

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• April 2003 Six tonnes leak of heavy water at reactor II of the Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) in Uttar Pradesh . • November 2009 Fifty-five employees consume radioactive material after irritated water finds its way into the drinking water cooler in Kaiga Generating Station.structural damages that have occurred in India’s civilian nuclear power sector • April 2011 Fire alarms blare in the control room of the Kaiga Generating Station in Karnataka.

exposing six workers to high doses of radiation • May 2002 Tritiated water leaks from a downgraded heavy water storage tank at the tank farm of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) 1&2 into a common dyke area. An estimated 22.2 Curies of radioactivity is released into the environment .• January 2003 Failure of a valve in the Kalpakkam Atomic Reprocessing Plant in Tamil Nadu results in the release of high-level waste.

• November 2001 A leak of 1. resulting in one worker receiving an internal radiation dose of 18. Various workers involved in the clean-up received ‘significant uptakes of tritium .49 mSv • April 2000 Leak of about seven tonnes of heavy water from the moderator system at NAPS Unit II.4 tonnes of heavy water at the NAPS I reactor.

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