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Opening Question: A scientist creates a reaction by mixing two chemicals in a beaker.

As the reaction proceeds, water droplets condense and eventually freeze on the sides of the beaker. Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic? Waterfall at 3 after the hourstart typing!
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Todays Objectives:

Chemistry

Explain the differences among elements, compounds, and mixtures.


Identify and describe reactants and products of simple chemical reactions. Use characteristic physical or chemical properties to distinguish one substance from another (e.g., density, thermal expansion/contraction, freezing/melting points, streak test) Explain the Law of Conservation of Mass

Recognize that all matter consists of atoms


Compare the particle arrangement and type of particle motion associated with different states of matter Identify the basic properties of acids and bases

Elements, Compounds, Mixtures



Elements- chemical element is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Compounds-A substance containing atoms of two or more elements that can be separated into elements through chemical reactions. Water is an example of a compound.

Mixture-A combination of two or more substances that do not change chemically when mixed. Trail mix is an example of a mixture.

* *

Homogenous Mixture-a mixture in which the ratio of each component to the others is the same everywhere in the mixture (a.k.a. solution) Heterogeneous Mixture-a mixture in which different parts have different compositions, made of different proportions of particular atoms or molecules

PSSA Prep Questions


1) Vince is baking a cake. He pours flour and sugar into an empty bowl. The substance in the bowl is a(n) __________. A.mixture B.compound C.element D.atom 2) Sharon pours salt into a glass of water. The salt dissolves. The substance in the glass is a(n) __________. A.mixture B.compound C.atom D.element

Answers on next slide.

PSSA Prep Questions


1) Vince is baking a cake. He pours flour and sugar into an empty bowl. The substance in the bowl is a(n) __________. A.mixture B.compound C.element D.atom 2) Sharon pours salt into a glass of water. The salt dissolves. The substance in the glass is a(n) __________. A.mixture B.compound C.atom D.element

PSSA Prep Questions


3) Megan left her bicycle outside on the patio while she went on vacation for several weeks. When she returned, Megan discovered a reddish substance, rust, on the handlebars of her bicycle. The rust is an example of a(n) __________. A.mixture B.atom C.compound D.element

4) Which of the following statements is false? A.Two or more different atoms combine chemically to form an element. B.Two or more different substances combine physically to form a mixture. C.Two or more atoms combine chemically to form a molecule. D.Two or more elements combine chemically to form a compound.

Answers on next slide.

PSSA Prep Questions


3) Megan left her bicycle outside on the patio while she went on vacation for several weeks. When she returned, Megan discovered a reddish substance, rust, on the handlebars of her bicycle. The rust is an example of a(n) __________. A.mixture B.atom C.compound D.element

4) Which of the following statements is false? A.Two or more different atoms combine chemically to form an element. B.Two or more different substances combine physically to form a mixture. C.Two or more atoms combine chemically to form a molecule. D.Two or more elements combine chemically to form a compound.

PSSA Prep Questions

Question 5: A. element; compound; mixture B. compound; compound; element C. element; element; compound D. compound; element; mixture

Answers on next slide.

PSSA Prep Questions

Question 5: A. element; compound; mixture B. compound; compound; element C. element; element; compound D. compound; element; mixture

Law of Conservation of Mass



Law of Conservation of Mass is a relation stating that in a chemical reaction, the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants. Matter cannot be created or destroyed in any ordinary chemical reaction. In other words, the mass of any one element at the beginning of a reaction will equal the mass of that element at the end of the reaction.

Question 6: A. atoms; atom; compound B. compounds; atom; molecule C. molecules; molecule; compound D. atoms; molecule; compound
Answers on next slide.

Question 6: A. atoms; atom; compound B. compounds; atom; molecule C. molecules; molecule; compound D. atoms; molecule; compound

Chemical Reactions

bonds between elements. * Covalent Bonds-a bond in which electrons are shared between the bonded atoms * Ionic Bonds-the force of attraction between a charged atom (or group of connected atoms) and another with the opposite charge
Chemical Reactions-The process of breaking and forming

Reactant-the starting molecules in a chemical reaction Products-the molecules that result from a chemical reaction

PSSA Prep Questions


Ionic Compounds
Generally have high freezing and boiling points Most are soluble in water

Covalent Compounds
Generally have low freezing and boiling points Many are insoluble in water

Generally are good electrical conductors when melted or dissolved in water

Generally are poor electrical conductors in all states

7) In an octane molecule, carbon atoms share electrons with hydrogen atoms. Which of the following is most likely true of octane? A. It has a low boiling point B. It dissolves easily in water C. It freezes at high temperatures Answers on next slide. D. It is a good electrical conductor

PSSA Prep Questions


Ionic Compounds
Generally have high freezing and boiling points Most are soluble in water

Covalent Compounds
Generally have low freezing and boiling points Many are insoluble in water

Generally are good electrical conductors when melted or dissolved in water

Generally are poor electrical conductors in all states

7) In an octane molecule, carbon atoms share electrons with hydrogen atoms. Which of the following is most likely true of octane? A. It has a low boiling point B. It dissolves easily in water C. It freezes at high temperatures D. It is a good electrical conductor

Chemical Reactions
Exothermic Reaction is a chemical reaction that releases

energy in the form of light or heat. Endothermic Reaction a chemical reaction during which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings in the Trial Initial Final form of heat.
1 2 3 4 Temperature 27.5C 27.2C 27.9C 27.1C Temperature 28.2C 26.1C 27.1C 25.8C

8) INITIAL AND FINAL TEMPERATURES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS A scientist combines different substances and observes their reactions, as shown in the table. In which trial did an exothermic reaction most likely occur? A. Trial 1 B. Trial 2 C. Trial 3 D. Trial 4

PSSA Prep Question

W+XY+Z 9) A scientist carries out this reaction several times in a sealed container with a fixed volume. The initial amounts of reactants and products are equal in each trial. In which of the following trials is the reaction rate lowest?
A. Trial 1: 0.31 mg of Y produced per minute B. Trial 2: 0.47 mg of Y produced per minute C. Trial 3: 0.31 mg of Y produced per second D. Trial 4: 0.47 mg of Y produced per second.

Answers on next slide.

PSSA Prep Question

W+XY+Z 9) A scientist carries out this reaction several times in a sealed container with a fixed volume. The initial amounts of reactants and products are equal in each trial. In which of the following trials is the reaction rate lowest?
A. Trial 1: 0.31 mg of Y produced per minute B. Trial 2: 0.47 mg of Y produced per minute C. Trial 3: 0.31 mg of Y produced per second D. Trial 4: 0.47 mg of Y produced per second.

All matter is made up of atoms.

Atom-A tiny particle that is the fundamental building block of substances. Molecule-two or more atoms bonded together.

* *

Proton-a positive (+) particle in the nucleus of an atom. The number of protons in each atom is the atoms atomic number. Neutron-a neutral particle with approximately the same mass as a proton, found in nuclei of atoms along with protons. The number of neutrons plus the number of protons equals the atoms atomic mass. Electron-a negatively (-) charged particle with much less mass than protons and neutrons (approximately 1/2000), found around the nuclei of atoms

Valance electron-the electron in the outermost shell of an atom and the electron that participates in chemical bonding.

PSSA Prep Questions


10) A chlorine atom has 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 17 electrons. What can you conclude about the overall charge of the atom? A. It is neutral B. It is positive C. It is negative D. It is undefined 11) The atomic number of neon is 10. What can you conclude about the structure of a neon atom?

A. It has ten protons


B. It has ten valence electrons C. It has five protons and five neutrons D. It has nine protons and one electron

Answers on next slide.

PSSA Prep Questions


10) A chlorine atom has 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 17 electrons. What can you conclude about the overall charge of the atom? A. It is neutral B. It is positive C. It is negative D. It is undefined 11) The atomic number of neon is 10. What can you conclude about the structure of a neon atom?

A. It has ten protons


B. It has ten valence electrons C. It has five protons and five neutrons D. It has nine protons and one electron

Solids, Liquids, and Gases



Solid-something with a definite shape that is not easily changed Liquid- Something that flows freely and takes the shape of its container. We know water is a liquid because we can pour it, and it takes the shape of whatever container we put it in. Gas - matter with no definite shape, but that takes the shape of its container and fills it completely; usually invisible

The distance between particles determines the state of matter for a material. When a material changes state, the average spacing of its particles change.
Solids: are always vibrating, packed very closely together, but they do not exchange positions.

Liquids: also packed closely together but have enough energy to slip and slide past one another.
Gases: are spread very far apart, in constant, rapid motion, bouncing off of walls and each other.

Acids and Bases

Acids-a substance that is characterized by a sour taste and has a pH of less than 7 Bases-a substance that has a bitter taste and a slippery feel, and a pH of greater than 7 PH Scale-a scale that measures the acidity or baseness of a solution 12) An acidic solution could have a pH of A. 7 B. 10 C. 3 D. 14
Answers on next slide.

Acids and Bases

Acids-a substance that is characterized by a sour taste and has a pH of less than 7 Bases-a substance that has a bitter taste and a slippery feel, and a pH of greater than 7 PH Scale-a scale that measures the acidity or baseness of a solution 12) An acidic solution could have a pH of A. 7 B. 10 C. 3 D. 14

13) When a small piece of white marble rock is carefully placed in a beaker of hydrochloric acid, bubbles form on the surface of the rock and rise to the top of the liquid. Which conclusion best fits this observation? A.The rock reacted with the acid and made a new gaseous substance.

B.The rock was changed by the acid into its gaseous form.

C.The rock dissolved in the acid by breaking into its smallest pieces.

D.The rock heated the acid until it began to boil.

Answers on next slide.

13) When a small piece of white marble rock is carefully placed in a beaker of hydrochloric acid, bubbles form on the surface of the rock and rise to the top of the liquid. Which conclusion best fits this observation? A.The rock reacted with the acid and made a new gaseous substance.

B.The rock was changed by the acid into its gaseous form.

C.The rock dissolved in the acid by breaking into its smallest pieces.

D.The rock heated the acid until it began to boil.

Properties of Matter

Physical change-changes in matter that involve changes in the relationships among the molecules and/or in their motions, but not in the compounds or elements present * Physical properties-the properties of a substance that can be observed without changing the chemical makeup of the substance Chemical Change-changes in matter that involve changes in the types of molecules present, in which bonds between atoms are broken and/or formed * Chemical Properties-properties of a substance relating to the chemical nature and reactivity of the substance

Dont try this at home.

PSSA Prep Questions


14) All substances have characteristic properties. If one of these properties can be observed without changing the identity of the substance, it must be a A.physical property. B.universal property. C.biological property. D.chemical property 15) Water is a very unique substance because it can exist in all three phases of matter (solid, liquid, gas) within the normal temperature ranges found on Earth. When one observes the phase of matter of water, one observes a property of matter.

A.geological B.chemical C.biological D.physical

Answers on next slide.

PSSA Prep Questions


14) All substances have characteristic properties. If one of these properties can be observed without changing the identity of the substance, it must be a A.physical property. B.universal property. C.biological property. D.chemical property 15) Water is a very unique substance because it can exist in all three phases of matter (solid, liquid, gas) within the normal temperature ranges found on Earth. When one observes the phase of matter of water, one observes a property of matter.

A.geological B.chemical C.biological D.physical

PSSA Prep Questions


16) Adam is trying to identify a solid. He places a small amount of the substance in an acid solution and observes whether or not a reaction takes place. This test is based on a _______ property.

A.chemical B.biological C.radical D.physical


17) Which of the following is a chemical property? A.boiling point B.melting point C.density D.combustibility Answers on next slide.

PSSA Prep Questions


16) Adam is trying to identify a solid. He places a small amount of the substance in an acid solution and observes whether or not a reaction takes place. This test is based on a _______ property.

A.chemical B.biological C.radical D.physical


17) Which of the following is a chemical property? A.boiling point B.melting point C.density D.combustibility

The table below shows properties of the element gold (Au). Gold's Characteristics yellow 19.32 g/mL 2.54 9.225 2807C 1064.58C

Property Color Density Electronegativity Ionization Potential Boiling Point Melting Point

18) A physical property of gold is _________________________.


A.melting point of 1064.58C B.density of 19.32 g/mL C.boiling point of 2807C D.all of these

Answers on next slide.

The table below shows properties of the element gold (Au). Gold's Characteristics yellow 19.32 g/mL 2.54 9.225 2807C 1064.58C

Property Color Density Electronegativity Ionization Potential Boiling Point Melting Point

18) A physical property of gold is _________________________.


A.melting point of 1064.58C B.density of 19.32 g/mL C.boiling point of 2807C D.all of these

Scientific Method

While watching this clip: Fill up the chat box with what you idea of the word hypothesis is.

Match the term with its definition



Question Research/Observe Hypothesis

A statement that you can prove by conducting an experiment. Not always an if-then
Ask yourself What, Why, How Independent Variable The data variable, response to independent variable Begin to gather information to answer your question. Control

Independent Variable
Dependent Variable

Conclusion

The variable being tested or manipulated by the researcher.


The answer to your questions based on the analyzed data Answers on next slide.

Match the term with its definition



Question Research/Observe Hypothesis

A statement that you can prove by conducting an experiment. Not always an if-then
Ask yourself What, Why, How The data variable, response to independent variable Begin to gather information to answer your question. The variable being tested or manipulated by the researcher. The answer to your questions based on the analyzed data

Independent Variable
Dependent Variable

Conclusion

Exit Ticket
A scientist studies the behavior of light emitted from a
star to determine the chemical composition of the star. Which of the following best describes this activity? A. Stating a hypothesis B. Asking a scientific question Answers on next slide. C. Making a direct observation D. Making an indirect observation

Exit Ticket
A scientist studies the behavior of light emitted from a
star to determine the chemical composition of the star. Which of the following best describes this activity? A. Stating a hypothesis B. Asking a scientific question Answers on next slide. C. Making a direct observation D. Making an indirect observation