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Ciclo celular

M. C. Eloy Gasca Prez Propedutico de ingreso Maestra en Qumica Bioorgnica

Cell Division
All cells are derived from pre-existing cells
New cells are produced for growth and to replace damaged or old cells Differs in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (protists, fungi, plants, & animals)

Keeping Cells Identical

The instructions for making cell parts are encoded in the DNA, so each new cell must get a complete set of the DNA molecules

DNA Replication
Original DNA strand
DNA must be copied or replicated before cell division Each new cell will then have an identical copy of the DNA

Two new, identical DNA strands

Identical Daughter Cells

Two identical daughter cells Parent Cell

Chromosomes

Prokaryotic Chromosome

The DNA of prokaryotes (bacteria) is one, circular chromosome attached to the inside of the cell membrane

Eukaryotic Chromosomes
All eukaryotic cells store genetic information in chromosomes Most eukaryotes have between 10 and 50 chromosomes in their body cells Human body cells have 46 chromosomes or 23 identical pairs

Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Each chromosome is composed of a single, tightly coiled DNA molecule Chromosomes cant be seen when cells arent dividing and are called chromatin

Compacting DNA into Chromosomes

DNA is tightly coiled around proteins called histones

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Chromosomes in Dividing Cells

Duplicated chromosomes are called chromatids & are held together by the centromere

Called Sister Chromatids

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Karyotype
A picture of the chromosomes from a human cell arranged in pairs by size First 22 pairs are called autosomes

Last pair are the sex chromosomes


XX female or XY male

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Boy or Girl?
The Y Chromosome Decides

Y - Chromosome

X - Chromosome

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Cell Reproduction

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Types of Cell Reproduction


Asexual reproduction involves a single cell dividing to make 2 new, identical daughter cells Mitosis & binary fission are examples of asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction involves two cells (egg & sperm) joining to make a new cell (zygote) that is NOT identical to the original cells Meiosis is an example

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Cell Division in Prokaryotes

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Cell Division in Prokaryotes


Prokaryotes such as bacteria divide into 2 identical cells by the process of binary fission Single chromosome makes a copy of itself
Parent cell

Chromosome doubles

Cell wall forms between the chromosomes Cell splits dividing the cell

2 identical daughter cells

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Prokaryotic Cell Undergoing Binary Fission

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Animation of Binary Fission

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The Cell Cycle

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Five Phases of the Cell Cycle


G1 - primary growth phase S synthesis; DNA replicated G2 - secondary growth phase collectively these 3 stages are called interphase M - mitosis C - cytokinesis

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Cell Cycle

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Interphase - G1 Stage
1st growth stage after cell division Cells mature by making more cytoplasm & organelles Cell carries on its normal metabolic activities

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Interphase S Stage
Synthesis stage DNA is copied or replicated

Two identical copies of DNA

Original DNA
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Interphase G2 Stage 2nd Growth Stage Occurs after DNA has been copied All cell structures needed for division are made (e.g. centrioles) Both organelles & proteins are synthesized

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Whats Happening in Interphase?

What the cell looks like

Animal Cell

Whats occurring
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Sketch the Cell Cycle


DNA Copied Cells prepare for Division Cells Mature

Daughter Cells Cell Divides into Identical cells


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Mitosis

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Mitosis

Division of the nucleus


Also called karyokinesis Only occurs in eukaryotes Has four stages Doesnt occur in some cells such as brain cells

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Four Mitotic Stages


Prophase

Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

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Early Prophase

Chromatin in nucleus condenses to form visible chromosomes Mitotic spindle forms from fibers in cytoskeleton or centrioles (animal)
Cytoplasm

Nucleolus

Nuclear Membrane
Chromosomes

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Late Prophase
Nuclear membrane & nucleolus are broken down Chromosomes continue condensing & are clearly visible Spindle fibers called kinetochores attach to the centromere of each chromosome Spindle finishes forming between the poles of the cell

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Late Prophase
Chromosomes

Nucleus & Nucleolus have disintegrated

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Spindle Fiber attached to Chromosome

Kinetochore Fiber

Chromosome

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Review of Prophase
What the cell looks like

Whats happening

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Spindle Fibers
The mitotic spindle form from the microtubules in plants and centrioles in animal cells Polar fibers extend from one pole of the cell to the opposite pole

Kinetochore fibers extend from the pole to the centromere of the chromosome to which they attach
Asters are short fibers radiating from centrioles

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Sketch The Spindle

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Metaphase
Chromosomes, attached to the kinetochore fibers, move to the center of the cell
Chromosomes are now lined up at the equator

Equator of Cell
Pole of the Cell

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Metaphase
Asters at the poles

Spindle Fibers

Chromosomes lined at the Equator

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Metaphase

Aster

Chromosomes at Equator
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Review of Metaphase

What the cell looks like

Whats occurring
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Anaphase

Occurs rapidly

Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell by kinetochore fibers

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Anaphase

Sister Chromatids being separated

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Anaphase Review
What the cell looks like

Whats occurring

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Telophase
Sister chromatids at opposite poles Spindle disassembles Nuclear envelope forms around each set of sister chromatids Nucleolus reappears CYTOKINESIS occurs Chromosomes reappear as chromatin

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Comparison of Anaphase & Telophase

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Cytokinesis
Means division of the cytoplasm
Division of cell into two, identical halves called daughter cells In plant cells, cell plate forms at the equator to divide cell In animal cells, cleavage furrow forms to split cell

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Cytokinesis
Cleavage furrow in animal cell Cell plate in animal cell

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Mitotic Stages

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Daughter Cells of Mitosis


Have the same number of chromosomes as each other and as the parent cell from which they were formed Identical to each other, but smaller than parent cell

Must grow in size to become mature cells (G1 of Interphase)

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Identical Daughter Cells

What is the 2n or diploid number?

2
Chromosome number the same, but cells smaller than parent cell
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Review of Mitosis

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Draw & Learn these Stages

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Draw & Learn these Stages

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Name the Mitotic Stages:


Interphase

Name this? Telophase Prophase

Name this?

Metaphase Anaphase
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Eukaryotic Cell Division


Used for growth and repair Produce two new cells identical to the original cell Cells are diploid (2n) Chromosomes during Metaphase of mitosis

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Cytokinesis Telophase
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Mitosis Animation
Name each stage as you see it occur?

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Mitosis in Onion Root Tips


Do you see any stages of mitosis?

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Test Yourself over Mitosis

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Mitosis Quiz

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Mitosis Quiz

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Name the Stages of Mitosis:


Early Anaphase
Early prophase Metaphase

Interphase

Early Telophase, Begin cytokinesis

Late Prophase

Late telophase, Advanced cytokinesis

Mid-Prophase

Late Anaphase
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Identify the Stages

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Early, Middle, & Late Prophase

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Late Prophase Metaphase

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Anaphase

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Late Anaphase Telophase

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Telophase & Cytokinesis
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Locate the Four Mitotic Stages in Plants

Anaphase Telophase Metaphase

Prophase
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Uncontrolled Mitosis

If mitosis is not controlled, unlimited cell division occurs causing cancerous tumors Oncogenes are special proteins that increase the chance that a normal cell develops into a tumor cell

Cancer cells
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Formation of Gametes
(Eggs & Sperm)

Meiosis

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Facts About Meiosis


Preceded by interphase which includes chromosome replication Two meiotic divisions --- Meiosis I and Meiosis II Called Reduction- division Original cell is diploid (2n) Four daughter cells produced that are monoploid (1n)

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Facts About Meiosis


Daughter cells contain half the number of chromosomes as the original cell Produces gametes (eggs & sperm) Occurs in the testes in males (Spermatogenesis) Occurs in the ovaries in females (Oogenesis)

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More Meiosis Facts


Start with 46 double stranded chromosomes (2n)
After 1 division - 23 double stranded chromosomes (n) After 2nd division - 23 single stranded chromosomes (n) Occurs in our germ cells that produce gametes

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Why Do we Need Meiosis?


It is the fundamental basis of sexual reproduction Two haploid (1n) gametes are brought together through fertilization to form a diploid (2n) zygote

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Fertilization Putting it all together

2n = 6
1n =3

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Replication of Chromosomes

Replication is the process of duplicating a chromosome Occurs prior to division

Occurs in Interphase

Replicated copies are called sister chromatids

Held together at centromere

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A Replicated Chromosome

Gene X

Homologs (same genes, different alleles)

Sister Chromatids
(same genes, same alleles)

Homologs separate in meiosis I and therefore different alleles separate.


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Meiosis Forms Haploid Gametes


Meiosis must reduce the chromosome number by half Fertilization then restores the 2n number
from mom from dad child

too much!

meiosis reduces genetic content The right number!


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Meiosis: Two Part Cell Division


Sister chromatids separate

Homologs separate

Meiosis I

Meiosis II

Diploid

Diploid Haploid
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Meiosis I: Reduction Division

Nucleus
Early Prophase I (Chromosome number doubled)

Spindle fibers

Nuclear envelope

Late Prophase I

Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I (diploid)

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Prophase I

Early prophase Homologs pair. Crossing over occurs.

Late prophase Chromosomes condense. Spindle forms. Nuclear envelope fragments.


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Tetrads Form in Prophase I


Homologous chromosomes (each with sister chromatids) Join to form a TETRAD

Called Synapsis

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Crossing-Over
Homologous chromosomes in a tetrad cross over each other Pieces of chromosomes or genes are exchanged Produces Genetic recombination in the offspring

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Homologous Chromosomes During Crossing-Over

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Crossing-Over

Crossing-over multiplies the already huge number of different gamete types produced by independent assortment
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Metaphase I

Homologous pairs of chromosomes align along the equator of the cell

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Anaphase I

Homologs separate and move to opposite poles.

Sister chromatids remain attached at their centromeres.


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Telophase I

Nuclear envelopes reassemble.

Spindle disappears.

Cytokinesis divides cell into two.

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Meiosis II
Gene X

Only one homolog of each chromosome is present in the cell.

Sister chromatids carry identical genetic


information.

Meiosis II produces gametes with one copy of each chromosome and thus one copy of each gene.

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Meiosis II: Reducing Chromosome Number

Prophase II

Metaphase II Telophase II Anaphase II 4 Identical haploid cells


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Prophase II

Nuclear envelope fragments.

Spindle forms.

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Metaphase II

Chromosomes align along equator of cell.

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Anaphase II
Equator

Pole

Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles.

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Telophase II
Nuclear envelope assembles.

Chromosomes decondense.

Spindle disappears.

Cytokinesis divides cell into two.


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Results of Meiosis

Gametes (egg & sperm) form Four haploid cells with one copy of each chromosome One allele of each gene Different combinations of alleles for different genes along the chromosome

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Gametogenesis
Oogenesis or Spermatogenesis

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Spermatogenesis

Occurs in the testes


Two divisions produce 4 spermatids Spermatids mature into sperm Men produce about 250,000,000 sperm per day

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Spermatogenesis in the Testes


Spermatid

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Oogenesis
Occurs in the ovaries Two divisions produce 3 polar bodies that die and 1 egg Polar bodies die because of unequal division of cytoplasm Immature egg called oocyte Starting at puberty, one oocyte matures into an ovum (egg) every 28 days

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Oogenesis in the Ovaries

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Oogenesis
First polar body may divide (haploid)
a X a a X a X

Polar bodies die

X
X

Mitosis Oogonium (diploid)


A

Primary oocyte (diploid)

Meiosis I Meiosis II (if fertilization occurs)


A X

A X

Secondary oocyte (haploid)

Ovum (egg) Mature egg A


X

Second polar body (haploid)

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Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis

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Comparison of Divisions Mitosis


Number of divisions Number of daughter cells 1

Meiosis
2

2 Yes Same as parent

4 No Half of parent

Genetically identical?
Chromosome #

Where
When Role

Somatic cells
Throughout life Growth and repair

Germ cells
At sexual maturity Sexual reproduction
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