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THE DEP- ED INTEL FORMAT (PART 1)

Easy, breezy, beautiful

Previous Format

Title Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables

Abstract

Previous Format

  • Chapter 1 The Problem and its Setting

  • Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature

  • Chapter 3 Materials and Methods

  • Chapter 4 Results and Discussion

  • Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations

Previous Format

Acknowledgment

Bibliography

Appendices

Dep-Ed - Intel Format

  • Title

  • Table of Contents

  • List of Figures and Tables

  • Abstract

Dep-Ed - Intel Format

Research Plan

Materials and Methods

Treatments / General procedures

Dep-Ed - Intel Format

Introduction

Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Significance Scope and Limitations Review of Related Literature

Dep-Ed - Intel Format

  • Results and Discussion

  • Conclusions

  • Recommendations

  • Bibliography

  • Acknowledgments

Writing with the Dep-Ed Intel

Format

Write what you mean, mean what you write

The Title

Brief
Brief
Simple
Simple
Catchy Leading
Catchy
Leading

TITLE

Make or Break part

Says a lot about your research project

TITLE  Make or Break part  Says a lot about your research project

TITLE

Formulated before the start of the research

It may be revised and refined later if there is a need

TITLE  Formulated before the start of the research  It may be revised and refined

TITLE

  • It must be brief and concise as possible.

Avoid the terms a study of, an analysis of, an investigation of,

etc.

TITLE  It must be brief and concise as possible.  Avoid the terms – a

Examples

  • The antimicrobial effect of Sampaguita (Jasminium sambac L.) against Staphylococcus aureus

  • Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) as an alternative flour ingredient for bread

  • The antifungal effect of Mango (Mangifera

indica L.) extract against yeast

(Saccharomyces cerevisiae L.) growth on corn (Zea mays L.)

Improvements

  • The antimicrobial effect of Sampaguita (Jasminium sambac L.) against Staphylococcus aureus

  • In vitro antrimicrobial activity of Sampaguita (Jasminium sambac L.) leaves ethanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureus

  • Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Sampaguita (Jasminium sambac L.) leaves ethanolic extract

Improvements

  • Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) as an alternative flour ingredient for bread

  • Analysis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) flour as an alternative ingredient in breadmaking

  • Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) flour and commercial flour in breadmaking:

a comparative study

Improvements

  • The antifungal effect of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) extract against yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae L.) growth on corn (Zea mays L.)

  • Screening of antifungal activity of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit extract against yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae L.) growth on corn (Zea mays L.)

  • Characterization of corn (Zea mays L.) resistance against yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae L.) growth: An antifungal study via mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit extract

Table of Contents

Lists the title of the different parts including the title of each important subdivision with the corresponding

page number

Example

Introduction -------------------------------------------------

5

Background of the Study -------------------------------

5

Statement of the Problem ------------------------------

7

Significance of the Study -------------------------------

8

Scope and Limitations ---------------------------------- - 9

Review of Related Literature -------------------------

Abstract

short
short
concise
concise
250 words summary max
250 words
summary
max

Abstract

Purpose of the study Brief description of the methods Results Important conclusions

Abstract

Purpose of the study An introductory statement of the reason for investigating

the topic of the project.

A statement of the problem or hypothesis being studied.

Abstract

  • Brief description of the methods

  • A summarization of the key points and an overview of how the investigation was conducted.

  • Omit details about the materials used unless it greatly influenced the procedure or had to be developed to do the investigation.

  • An abstract should only include procedures done by the student. Work done by a mentor

(such as surgical procedures) or work done prior to student involvement must not be included

Abstract

  • Results

This section should provide key results that lead directly to the

conclusions you have drawn.

It should not give too many details about the results nor include charts

or graphs.

  • Important conclusions

Example - Title

POTENTIAL ANTIANGEONIC PROPERTY OF Cassia alata L. HEXANE EXTRACT ON THE EMBRYONIC BLOOD VESSELS OF DUCK, Anas dometicus EMBRYOS

Hexane extract from the leaves of Cassia alata L. (akapulko) was evaluated for possible antiangiogenic effect on the extraembryonic blood vessels as well as on the embryos of ducks. 0.2 ml each of 10, 20, 30 and 40 X 10 -6 g/ml dosages of crude hexane extract were administered to 3-day old duck using a modified windowing technique. Results were compared to the negative control that used phosphate buffered saline

(PBS) and the untreated set-ups. Duck embryos treated

with the various concentrations of hexane extract inhibited blood vessels formation in a dose dependent manner. The embryos treated with the highest dose of

40 x 10 -6 g/ml prevented the proliferation of extraembryonic blood vessels. The results suggest that Cassia alata hexane fraction could be a good candidate antiangiogenic agent that may confer its potential as an

Hexane extract from the leaves of Cassia alata L. (akapulko) was evaluated for possible antiangiogenic effect on the extraembryonic blood vessels as well as on the embryos of ducks. 0.2 ml each of 10, 20, 30 and 40 X 10 -6 g/ml dosages of crude hexane extract were administered to 3-day old duck using a modified windowing technique. Results were compared to the negative control that

used phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the untreated set-ups. Duck embryos treated with the various concentrations of hexane extract inhibited blood vessels formation in a dose dependent manner. The embryos treated with the highest dose of 40 x 10 -6 g/ml prevented the proliferation of extraembryonic blood vessels. The results suggest that Cassia alata hexane fraction could be a good

Research Plan

  • Describe the research

design (or defend)

  • Provide enough details so that a competent worker can repeat the

experiments

Research Plan  Describe the research design (or defend)  Provide enough details so that a

Research

Plan

Treatments / General Procedures
Treatments /
General
Procedures

Materials and Equipment

Research Plan

Materials and Equipment

Overview of the Experiment Population/Sample location Restrictions/Limiting conditions Sampling technique Materials

Research Plan

Treatment / General Procedures

Procedures Variables / Groups Statistical Treatment

General Guidelines in writing the Research Plan

  • Past Tense, active or passive voice.

  • Third Person perspective.

Clear and not too wordy

  • Include only what is necessary for

one recreating the experiment to

know.

Example:

...

the

weighing out of the agarose was

undertaken until 5g was measured out

and

the agarose was then later added to the

Solution

...

Example:

...

5g

agarose was added to

the solution

...

General Guidelines in writing the Research Plan

Materials and equipment utilized during the

experiment should be

mentioned throughout the

procedure as they are used.

Example

Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi) Leaves and Fruit Extract:

Its Antibacterial Effect on

Escherichia coli,

Staphylococcus aureus, and

Salmonella enteritidis

WRONG!

Materials and Equipment

  • Distilled Water

  • Kamias fruits (Sample)

  • Blender

  • Cheesecloth

  • Bottles

  • Refrigerator

CORRECT

Materials and Equipment

Preparation of Kamias Fruit Extract

  • One kilogram of Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi) fruit were gathered at Sta. Maria Farms in Zamboanga City. The fruits were then washed with distilled water and sun-dried. Using a kitchen blender, the fruits were ground and extracted leaving behind residues. The residues were then extracted once more with the use of cheesecloth. The Kamias fruit extract was then poured and sealed in a sterilized bottle and stored in the refrigerator at 4 degrees C for 24 hours.

General Guidelines in writing the Research Plan

For materials, include the exact specifications and quantities. Avoid the use of trade names use chemical, generic, or

scientific names.

WRONG!

Materials and Equipment

Kamias fruits were collected from the farm. Wilkin’s Distilled water was

used to wash the fruits. Using a

blender, the fruits were ground.

CORRECT

Materials and Equipment

Preparation of Kamias Fruit Extract

  • One kilogram of Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi) fruit were gathered at Sta. Maria Farms in Zamboanga City. The fruits were then washed with distilled water and sun-dried. Using a kitchen blender, the fruits were ground and extracted leaving behind residues. The residues were then extracted once more with the use of cheesecloth. The Kamias fruit extract was then poured and sealed in a sterilized bottle and stored in the refrigerator at 4 degrees C for 24 hours.

General Guidelines in writing the Research Plan

Do not explain too much about why you have used a

certain method. You can put

these explanations into your

Results section.

Example

  • One kilogram of Kamias leaves and fruits were gathered at the EAAB (Edwin Andrews Air

Base), Sta. Maria, Zamboanga City. The leaves were then washed with distilled water

and dried. Washing is very important because

it will remove contaminants from the leaves which may affect the result of the experiment. These contaminants can be bacteria, fungi, or

protists. Distilled water is the gold standard in

washing the samples according to studies.

WRONG!

  • Kamias leaves and fruits were gathered at the EAAB (Edwin Andrews Air Base), Sta. Maria,

Zamboanga City. The leaves were then

washed with distilled water and dried. Washing is very important because it will remove

contaminants from the leaves which may affect the result of the experiment. These contaminants can be bacteria, fungi, or

protists. Distilled water is the gold standard in

washing the samples according to studies.

CORRECT

  • Kamias leaves and fruits were gathered at the EAAB (Edwin Andrews Air Base), Sta. Maria,

Zamboanga City. The leaves were then washed with distilled water and dried. Using a

pair of scissors, the leaves were cut into

pieces. Using a blender, the leaves were ground into a fine powder. The resulting powder was then extracted with the use of

cheesecloth. The Kamias leaves extract was

then poured and sealed in a sterilized bottle and stored in the refrigerator at 4 degrees Centigrade for 24 hours.

General Guidelines in writing the Research Plan

Be precise. If something was heated or cooled, give the temperature.

“How” or “how much” should be answered in your methods.

CORRECT

  • One kilogram of Kamias leaves and fruits were gathered at the EAAB (Edwin Andrews Air

Base), Sta. Maria, Zamboanga City. The leaves were then washed with distilled water

and dried. Using a pair of scissors, the leaves

were cut into pieces. Using a blender, the leaves were ground into a fine powder. The resulting powder was then extracted with the use of cheesecloth. All of the resulting Kamias leaves extract was then poured and sealed in a sterilized bottle and stored in the refrigerator at 4 degrees Centigrade for 24 hours.

General Guidelines in writing the Research Plan

Do not include any results.

Make use of figures and tables, they are the most

efficient way to convey bulky detailed information.

Research Plan

Materials and Equipment Treatment and General Procedures

Materials and Equipment

  • Study Site

  • Preparation of Extracts

  • Preparation of Test Organisms

Materials and Equipment

Study Site

This study was conducted at the Department of Science and Technology - Zamboanga City. The specimens of E. coli, S. aureus and S. enteritidis were obtained at the Department of Science and

Technology…

Materials and Equipment

Preparation of Extracts

Kamias leaves and fruits were gathered at the EAAB

(Edwin Andrews Air Base), Sta. Maria, Zamboanga City. The leaves were then washed with distilled water and dried. Using a pair of scissors, the leaves were cut into

pieces. Using a blender, the leaves were ground into a

fine powder. The resulting powder was then extracted with the use of cheesecloth. The Kamias leaves extract was then poured and sealed in a sterilized bottle and stored in

the refrigerator at 4 degrees Centigrade for 24 hours.

Materials and Equipment

Preparation of Test Organisms

The test organisms namely Escherichia coli,

Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis were taken from pure cultures using spread method, and were provided by the DOST-Zamboanga City. The laboratory

officer-in-charge assisted the researchers in spreading

the bacteria from pure cultures to two test tubes filled with

nutrient agar. These test tubes were incubated at 35.5 degrees centigrade for 24 hours.

Treatment and General Procedures

Preparation of Treatments

The different concentrations of the leaves and fruits

extracts were prepared and they were named :Treatment A - 100% water served (negative control); Treatment B - 100% Kamias leaves extract; Treatment C - 50% Distilled

water and 50% Kamias leaves extract; Treatment D -

100% antibiotic (positive control); Treatment E - 100% Kamias fruit extract and; Treatment F - 50% Distilled water and 50% Kamias fruit extract.

Treatment and General Procedures

Microbiological Assay

...

With the use of syringe, 0.5 mL of each

bacterial specimen was transferred to its corresponding petri dish. The specimens were

spread evenly using cotton buds…

Treatment and General Procedures

Statistical Analyses

This study utilized both descriptive and

inferential statistics in analyzing and interpreting the data. Mean was chosen as

the measure of central tendency. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe’s Test were conducted to analyze and interpret the results.

Introduction

Informs the reader of the problem under study Sets the scene for the project

Introduction

Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Significance Scope and Limitations Review of Related Literature

Background of the Study

  • 1 Warm-up Introduce the problem

  • 2 Statement Scope / Limits

  • 3 Purpose Challenge the readers

Background of the Study

  • 1 Warm-up Introduce the problem

  • 2 Statement Scope / Limits

  • 3 Purpose Challenge the readers

Background of the Study

  • 1 Warm-up Introduce the problem

  • 2 Statement Scope / Limits

  • 3 Purpose Challenge the readers

Background of the Study

  • 1 Warm-up Introduce the problem

  • 2 Statement Scope / Limits

  • 3 Purpose Challenge the readers

Statement of the Problem

This is one of the most important parts of a research report. This is the focus of the study and all questions should be categorically answered.

Statement of the Problem  This is one of the most important parts of a research

Statement of the Problem

Statement of the Problem
Statement of the Problem
Statement of the Problem Statement of the Problem Specific Questions Specific Questions

Specific

Questions

Specific

Questions

Significance of the Study

  • Contributions may be viewed

from the point of the target beneficiaries like the researcher

himself, service providers, client,

implementors, the community,

etc.

Significance of the Study  Contributions may be viewed from the point of the target beneficiaries

Significance of the Study

  • The results of this study could

help them realize

. .

.

  • The useful and relevant information acquired from the study will encourage them to continue

. .

.

  • The study will encourage them to

.

.

.

Significance of the Study

This study will enhance

involvement in the

. Results could help benefit

.

.

. .

.

It will also serve as basis in

the study of

. .

.

Significance of the Study  This study will enhance involvement in the .  Results could

Significance of the Study

This study will also afford the management to know ..

  • Similar organizations will benefit

from the study in …

  • Researches may find the study useful as …

Significance of the Study  This study will also afford the management to know .. 

Significance of the Study

  • This study will contribute to …

  • The results hopefully, will be of value to …

  • Through this study, students will become aware of …

  • The results of this study will provide some

insights and information on how they …

  • The findings may also serve as a guide to

Scope and Limitations

Scope = coverage Subjects facilities Objectives
Scope = coverage
Subjects
facilities
Objectives
Scope and Limitations Scope = coverage Subjects facilities Objectives samples Time area frame issues
samples
samples
Time area frame
Time
area
frame
issues
issues

Scope

  • The study will focus on …

  • The coverage of this study .

  • The study covers the…

  • The study focuses on …

  • It includes …

  • It is concerned with ..

  • The study consists of …

Scope  The study will focus on …  The coverage of this study . 

Scope and Limitations

Limitations = constraints Not within the control of the Not covered by the study researchers
Limitations =
constraints
Not within the
control of the
Not covered
by the study
researchers

Limitations

  • This study is limited to …

  • The study does not cover ….

  • The investigators limited this

research to …

  • It does not seek to include …

Limitations  This study is limited to …  The study does not cover …. 

REVIEW OF RELATED LIT

AND STUDIES

REVIEW OF RELATED LIT AND STUDIES
REVIEW OF RELATED LIT AND STUDIES
REVIEW OF RELATED LIT AND STUDIES

THE REVIEW

Last part of the “Introduction”

THE REVIEW

It aims to gain insight into the aspects of the problem that are critical and controversial.

THE REVIEW  It aims to gain insight into the aspects of the problem that are

This part provides the investigator a background regarding the

aspects which have been studied and not yet studied.
aspects which have been studied
and not yet studied.

THE REVIEW

The researcher compares between

what should be read and included in the study and what should not

be read.

The investigator is required to read all literature and studies partially

THE REVIEW  The researcher compares between what should be read and included in the study

and closely related to the study.

THE REVIEW

conceptual

Readings, concepts, etc

THE REVIEW conceptual Readings, concepts, etc RRL research Studies, findings, etc
RRL
RRL
research
research

Studies,

findings, etc

THE REVIEW

  • In research writing, review of related Literature is divided into two parts.

  • (1) Related Readings and Literature

(Conceptual)

  • (2) Related Studies

(Research)

WHY DO WE REVIEW?

Tell me why ...

WHY DO WE REVIEW?

  • Eliminate “reinventing the wheel”

  • Reveals gaps in knowledge

  • Provide basis for research design

  • Places your study in perspective

  • Evaluate various studies

HOW DO WE REVIEW?

No to in toto

HOW DO WE REVIEW?

It is a narrative - flows from the beginning to the end with a single, coordinated theme.

It is synthetic - born out of the synthesis of many research studies. You will analyze research

reports by key words.

The final product will be a synthesis — a smooth blending — of selected articles built
The final product will be a synthesis — a
smooth blending — of selected articles built
around the key words of your study.

HOW DO WE REVIEW?

It is a narrative - flows from the beginning to the end with a single, coordinated theme.

It is synthetic - born out of the synthesis of many research studies. You will analyze research

reports by key words.

The final product will be a synthesis — a smooth blending — of selected articles built
The final product will be a synthesis — a
smooth blending — of selected articles built
around the key words of your study.

WHAT WILL WE REVIEW?

Sources of Data

SOURCES OF DATA

Primary
Primary

Journal Articles, Interviews, Lectures, Conferences, the like

Secondary

Books (usually), encyclopedia, dictionaries, the like

SOURCES OF DATA

Journals

Current, hot, popular

Written by experts who have done research

Focused

SOURCES OF DATA

Journals

Current, hot, popular

Written by experts who have done research

Focused

SOURCES OF DATA

ScienceDirect BioMed Central PubMed PNAS

SOURCES OF DATA

Plos Biology Landes Bioscience Springer (SpringerLink) Phil Journ Sci Phil Agri Sci Science Diliman

SOURCES OF DATA

Primary

Journal Articles, Interviews, Lectures, Conferences, the like

Secondary
Secondary

Books (usually), encyclopedia, dictionaries, the like

THE library

THE library

SOURCES OF DATA

Books

In-depth coverage Written by specialists/scientists Some are not current Logically and coherently arranged

SOURCES OF DATA  Books  In-depth coverage  Written by specialists/scientists  Some are not

SOURCES OF DATA

Encyclopedia

Answers specific factual questions Written by specialists/scientists Some are not current

THE internet

SOURCES OF DATA

The internet is a convenient and easy source of info but

there is a need to assess the

reliability of the sources.

How does information get onto the Web anyway?

  • 1994 1995 - most of the information on the internet was posted by scientists, educators, students and

the government.

  • Later - commercial use of the Web has exploded and so has the posting

of hobby pages or personal home

pages.

SOURCES OF DATA in the WWW

Wikipedia

Is a “wiki” site Maintained by the public Questionable reliability in some articles

SOURCES OF DATA in the WWW

Posts by educational

groups

High school projects

College projects

SOURCES OF DATA in the WWW  Posts by educational groups  High school projects 

SOURCES OF DATA in the WWW

Info by the Government

Statistics

Studies

www.dost.gov.ph

www.denr.gov.ph

SOURCES OF DATA in the WWW  Info by the Government  Statistics  Studies 

SOURCES OF DATA in the WWW

Non-profit organizations provide information relevant to their key issues.

greenpeace.org

SOURCES OF DATA in the WWW  Non-profit organizations provide information relevant to their key issues

SOURCES OF DATA in the WWW

Full-text versions of works whose copyright has expired

BUT, why do we sometimes find it

difficult to search the net?

Why?

What’s missing?

  • The problem is not that of "finding anything" but finding a particular thing.

  • When your search term in one of the popular search engines brings back 130,000 hits, you still wonder if the one thing you're looking for will be among them.

What’s missing?

Copyrighted books Most journal articles magazines
Copyrighted
books
Most journal
articles
magazines
newspapers summaries
newspapers
summaries

How to search?

Learn how search syntax works

Search Help

Use Advanced Search

File type Date Country, etc.

Search Syntax

Use “ ” marks.

Example: air pollution vs. “air pollution” Example: botox vs. Botox

Advanced Search

Very useful, saves time, more refined search

Different in journal databases and in search engines (Google, etc.)

Search Syntax

Use “filetype:pdf

Scientific journals free

Descriptors

Found below the abstract of journal articles

Help you search for similar documents

SOURCES OF DATA

Reading critically Reasoning analytically
Reading critically
Reasoning analytically

Should be done whether the

materials they use are in print

or electronic