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DEFINITION

ADVERB CLAUSE or ADVERBIAL CLAUSE is a clause that function as an adverb. In other words, it contains a subject and a predicate, and it modifies a verb. Adverbial clause is classified base on meaning from the conjunction.

PATTERN
The general pattern of adverb clause is:

SUBJECT+PREDICATE+CONJUNCTION+ SUBJECT+PREDICATE
EXAMPLE: I dont know where she lives.
main clause sub clause

If sub clause AFTER the main clause, not use comma. If sub clause BEFORE the main clause, use comma.
e.g.: By the time he finished, I had cooked dinner.
sub clause main clause

KINDS OF ADVERB CLAUSE


a) CLAUSES OF TIME
These clauses are used to say when something happens by referring to a period of time or to another event. Conjunction used in this adverb, such as: when, before, after, since, while, as, as long as, until, till, by the time etc.
EXAMPLES : Her goldfish died when she was young We will finish before he arrives She began cooking while I was finishing my homework I have played tennis since I was a young boy

b) CLAUSES OF PLACE
These clauses are used to talk about the location or position of something or someone. Conjunction used in this adverb, such as: where, nowhere, anywhere, wherever. EXAMPLES : They sat down wherever they could find empty seats Where there is poverty, there we find discontent and unrest The guard stood where he was positioned

c) CLAUSES OF CONTRAST
These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other. Conjunctions used in this clause, such as: although, though, even though, whereas, even if, in spite of, despite. EXAMPLES: I used to read a lot although I don't get much time for books now In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday Mary wanted to stop whereas I wanted to go on

d) ADVERB OF MANNER
These clauses are used to talk about someone's behaviour, the way something is done or the way events is occurred. Conjunctions used in this clause, such as: as, like, the way, how, in that. EXAMPLES: I was never allowed to do things as I wanted to do them You may finish it how you like They may beat us again like they did in 1978

e) ADVERB OF CONDITION
These clauses are used to talk about a possible situation and its consequences. Conjunctions used in this clause, such as: if, unless, even if, on condition that, in case, if only etc. EXAMPLES: If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterwards She would forgive her husband everything if only he would come back to her In case a robbery occurs in the hotel, the management must be notified at once

f) ADVERB OF PURPOSE

These clauses are used to indicate the purpose of an action. Conjunctions used in this clause, such as: in order to, so that, in order that, in the hope that. EXAMPLES: They had to take some of his land so that they could extend the churchyard They went to the cinema early in order to find the best seats I am working day and night in the hope that I can finish this book soon

g) CLAUSES OF CAUSE AND EFFECT


These clauses are used to show the relationship between cause and effect. EXAMPLES: It was so cold yesterday that I didn't want to swim The soup tastes so good that everyone will ask for more The student had behaved so badly that he was dismissed from the class

Besides that, to express the relationship between cause and effect we can use other patterns, such as:
1) Used of preposition such as because of, due to, due to the fact that. EXAMPLES: Because of his good performance as a student, he is never nervous when doing exams. Due to urgent appointment with the doctor, I couldnt lend you my car. Due to the fact that the weather was cold, we stayed home.

2) Used of conjunction such as because, since, now, that, as, as long as. EXAMPLES: Because he was sleepy, he went to bed. Since he's not interested in classical music, he decided not to go to the concert. As the two government leaders could not reach an agreement, the possibilities for peace are still remote.

3) Used of transition words such as therefore, consequently. EXAMPLES: Alex didn't study. Therefore, he failed the test. There is fog at Chicago. Consequently, the place has been diverted.

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

QUESTIONS

EXERCISES
1. the earthquake had made the region unsafe for living, the villagers were willing to transmigrate. a. However c. Therefore e. Since b. Whereas d. So that 2. Shut the door..you go out. a. Because c. Although e. While b. Despite d. Before 3. .three people have died of cholera, the old people of the village refused to get an injection against it. a. although c. Because e. While b. Since d. Despite

4. the price of gold rises sharply, people keep buying it. a. Nevertheless c. When e. So b. On the other hand d. Even though 5. He earns much,..,he can afford to make a trip to Europe. a. Therefore c. Moreover e. Due to b. Furthermore d. Because 6. .the traffic jam, I couldnt arrive home on time. a. Because of c. Therefore e. So b. Because d. Consequently

7. Many parts of Jakarta were flooded. Thats people are used to dumping their domestic wastes into the rivers. a. While c. Although e. Whenever b. Because d. Before 8. Why didnt you print your report at home? I ran out of ink for my printer. Its . expensive that I cant afford it. a. Such c. So e. Very much b. Very d. Such an 9. I see him, I will invite him to the party tomorrow. a. If c. So e. Still b. Such d. Although

10. Vera has recently been promoted to a top position in her company, although a. She has a masters degree in business. b. She is relatively new in the company. c. She has proved herself to be a good manager. d. She has many years of experience. e. She seems to have much self confidence.

Though Although Even though Despite In spite of

+ clause (S+P)

+ phrase (S/P)

Pattern: a. Due to S + verb + object + due to + noun phrase b. Because of Because of + noun phrase, subject + verb + object + adverb c. Because S + verb + object + because + S + verb + object

h) CLAUSES OF RESULT
These clauses are used to indicate the result of something. Common conjunction used in this clause is sothat, suchthat EXAMPLE: o He was so angry that he couldnt say anything adj. o He is such a handsome boy that I love him noun phrase