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Theory of Multiple

Presented by
Coordinator FDP-AICTE
Why all the interest in
■ The educational opportunities depend
on one type of testing or other
■ it is used as a predictive tool for
performance in the job situations
■ Many a times we miss Einsteins,
Gandhis,Balamuralikrishnas and brand
them as dunces
■ In fact human potential is not identified
as we are not able to understand it
What is Human Potential?
■ We all go through various tests such as
Examinations, IAS etc.
■ Do they measure the potential of a
Humanbeing to perform future tasks or
tests what we know already?
■ What it measures?
■ How it measures?
■ Is it more focussed on the tool than on
what it is supposed to measure?
What is Intelligence ?
■ It is the single ■ It can be
general capacity measured by
that every standardized
Humanbeing verbal
possess to a instruments, such
greater or lesser as short answers,
extent paper and pencil
Who is true genius?
■ A mind of large general powers ,
accidentally determined to some
particular directions- S.Johnson
■ What is large general powers?
■ The mind has potential to deal with
many different content, does it mean
that persons ability with one kind has an
effect on other content?
■ No scientific proof is available to prove
the state ment of Samuel Johnson
How Intelligence is
■ Think and write five sentences on
your idea of intelligence
■ Keep it until we go the slide on
How it is expressed.
Earlier views
■ Joseph Gall has observed a
relationship between certain
mental characteristics of his
schoolmates and shapes of their
Phrenological Characteristics

■ Gall’s Hypothesis
Charles Spearman’ Two
factor theory
■ In examining correlation of various
subsets of intelligence, he found
that certain subsets tend to
correlate higher than others
■ His hypothesis is all intellectual
tasks must entail the exercise of a
factor known as general
intelligence(g factor)
■ Each individual type of item
Two Factor Theory
■ An individual has
overall supply of
mental energy
and the S factor is
invoked for
specific purpose
as neurological
■ He thought that it
can be
represented by a
■ He contributed that
Spearman’s g factor
consists of seven sub
■ Verbal
■ word fluency
■ Number facility
■ spatial Visualization
■ associative memory
■ perceptual speed
■ Inductive reasoning
■ Fluid Intelligence
■ characterized by Biological factors
■ Crystallized Intelligence
■ More characterized by
Historical Continuum of Phases of
Intelligence Measurement

■ Lay theories
■ Standard Psychometric Approach
■ Pluralization
■ Hierarchization
■ Contextualization
■ Distribution
Lay Theories
■ For most of the part of history
there was no scientific definition of
■ Out standing men and women are
labeled as ‘Clever’
■ Nobody challenged each other on
what is intelligence.
The standard
Psychometric Approach
■ A century ago, psychologists made
the first efforts to define
intelligence technically and to
devise test that measure
■ However, there is no scientific
advance in psychometric
community that really helped to
improve upon the system
Pluralization and
■ Charles Spearman-Lewis Terman
tended to believe that intelligence
was best conceptualized as a
single general capacity for
conceptualization and problem
■ They sought to demonstrate that a
group of scores on tests reflected a
single underlying factor of ‘General
Pluralizaton and
■ Thurstone-Guilford argued for
existence of a number of factors,
or components of intelligence. In
broader sense Howard Gardner
agrees with this tradition but he
relies on different source of
evidence. It is not on group of test
but on neurological ,evolutionary
and cross cultured evidence.
■ Is it possible for us to ignore
critical differences among contexts
within which human beings live
and develop.
■ Do you thing the person living in
the same era as ours is same as in
Neolithic and Homeric era.Part of
intelligence can be attributed to
cultures and their attributes rather
■ Distribution goes a step further it
talks about relation of person with
things and objects in the
immediate environment rather
than on structures and values in
larger context of culture.

■ Traditional View is that intelligence
is carried within one’s head.i.e. it
can be measured in isolation.
■ However it does not stop with
one’s skin, It encompasses tools,
(paper,pencil,computer etc) and
notional memory such as
colleagues, office files, library etc.
We can say that the Cognition is
It is not the end of the
■ Arthur Jensen-Eyseneck-Bouchard
■ They provided evidence on high
heritability of psychometric
intelligence.The examples of twins
reared apart.
■ They felt that there is no need to
pay attention to cultures,contexts
and distribution of intelligence.
Electrophysiological View
■ They said that intelligence is
reflected a basic property of the
nervous system and can be
assessed electrophysiologically
without going through the paper
and pencil tests.
■ Anderson has evidence to suggest
that indices of intelligence is found
in infants.
Are we in a collision
■ Cultural and ■ Genetic and
distribution Neurological basis
nature of of intelligence
intelligence, now ■ Speed and
how do we flexibility of
account for the nervous
intelligence conduction is
expressed outside largely inborn.And
the paper and we go by tough
pencil tests? We minded approach
call it a tender to intelligence
Expression of Intelligence
■ Specific tasks
■ Domains
■ Disciplines
■ There is no pure spatial
intelligence, it is expressed in
■ puzzle-solutions,block building or
in passing basket ball for children
What about adults?
How do we assess their
■ They exhibit as chess players,
artists or geometricians
■ We have to assess the intelligence
by watching people who are
familiar with and have skills in
these pursuits or we can introduce
people to the domain and observe
how well one can move beyond the
novice stage, with or without
What are Intelligence,
domains and fields
■ At the level of individual we are
speaking about one or more of
human intelligences. They are part
of our birth.
■ We are born in cultures that house
a large number of domains-
diciplines,crafts and other pursuits
in shich one can become
encultured and then can be
Let us go further in this
■ Individual practitioners
■ Persons who elect to enter a
professional realm, secure training, and
pursue their own personal and
professional goals
Individual practitioners

■ Important points
■ Knowledge was evenly distributed
among prehistoric era , in a tribe if a
person happens to know about
medicine, he continued to be hunter but
his knowledge is used by community.
■ It took thousands of years for the
society to develop the specialized
■ Knowledge ,Skill, practices, rules
and values captured in various
codes.A culture consists of
numerous domains and domains
have ethical dimensions.
■ When sufficient knowledge is
accumulated it is codified for
smooth transmission to new
■ Culture has many domains which
can be subdivided into further sub
■ Mathematics can be subdivided
into Calculus, Algebra etc.
■ Domain has both ideas and
symbolic codes.The symbols used
by a particular set of people in a
domain has a specific system that
helps them to communicate with
each other and to profession.
■ The role that individuals practice
when working with symbols of the
domain; field also include
institutions. A society consists of
numerous fields. There major
roles: elite gatekeepers, expert
practitioners, apprentices and
What is the relation
between Intelligence-
■ Think and give your comments
Let us imagine that we do
not know about
■ What are the roles or end states that
are prized by cultures?
■ Hunters
■ Fishermen
■ Religious leaders
■ athletes
■ artists
■ Musicians
■ Poets
Let us consider three

■Pulawat Sailor
■Koranic student
■Parisian composer
Using computer
If we want to
encompass the
realm of Human
cognition what
we have to do?
We have to include wider
Universal set of
■ If you closely observe the
competencies required by the end
states we said, they do not lend
themselves to measurement by
standard verbal methods
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Intelligence test
How do you identify the
Thank you very much