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Chapter 31

31.1 Intro.
The Reformation refers to a movement that b/g in the early 1500s that led to the start of many new Christian churches that broke away from the Catholic Church. Can you think of a belief system that may have influenced this? What were some of the problems with the Catholic Church? Those who broke away became known as Protestants.

31.2 Why Did the Catholic Church Weaken?

Worldliness and Corruption? Many church leaders broke their vows of celibacy, ignored Christian values, and behaved like royalty. How were they supposed to be behaving? Church officials b/g selling indulgences so people could buy forgiveness for their sins. Church also engaged in the practice of simony, or the selling of church positions. Why would one want to buy a church position? Church also charged to see relics and collected taxes.

The selling of indulgences

What Were the Political conflicts?

The Church had b/c a major political and economic power that was independent of monarchial control. How would this cause problems with monarchs? Monarchs b/g to question the popes authority. When Pope Clement V moved his HQ to Avignon, he appointed mostly French cardinals. Whats wrong with that? Many Europeans b/l that France controlled the papacy. How would this make the Church look bad? The Great schism: when 3 popes were elected and Catholics were left divided and confused.

King Philip IV

Pope Clement V

Pope Gregory IX

31.3 Who Were the Early Reformers?

John Wycliffe: English scholar that attacked indulgences and immoral behavior by Church. B/l that the Bible was supreme religious authority, not the Church and had Bible translated into English. What do you think happened to him? Pope accused him of heresy for going against Church doctrine.

Jan Hus: Bohemian priest that agreed w/ Wycliffe. Wanted Bible and mass to be in common language and claimed Christ was head of Church, not the pope. What do you think happened to him?

Catherine of Siena: Italian mystic that felt she had a direct experience of God. Emphasized personal experience of God over formal observances of church practices.

Erasmus: Outspoken humanist and priest that published The Praise of Folly. Argued for return to simple Christian goodness and against abuses of clergy. Wanted reform to happen from w/I the Church. So was he a Protestant?

31.4 Luther Breaks Away from the Church?

The Reformation b/g when Martin Luther broke away and started his own church. Was a devout Catholic, and a German, who b/c a monk and then a priest.

Why Did He Push for Change?

He believed that people were saved through faith, not works. What would this bring him into conflict with? This brought him into conflict with the Church over the selling of indulgences. Nailed a list of 95 arguments (Ninety-Five Theses) against indulgences and Church abuses on a church door. He argues that the Bible was the authority of the Church, not the pope, and that the only true sacraments were baptism and Eucharist. Who does this remind you of?

What do you think happened to him? He was excommunicated and declared a heretic. H.R.E. forbade printing or selling his writings.

How Did He Start His Own Church?

His popularity grew and he b/g organizing his own denomination, Lutheranism, which emphasized studying the Bible. German princes supported Luther and his church grew over next 30 years. Why did they support him? In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg stated that each prince w/I the H.R.E. could pick which religion he wanted. Christian unity was over.

31.5 Who Were the Early Leaders of the Reformation?

Reformation succeeded most where rulers embraced Protestantism. Zwingli: Catholic priest from Switzerland who was influenced by Erasmus and Luther. Wanted followers to focus solely on the Bible and banned any worship not based on the Bible. Created his own church in Switzerland.

Calvin: French humanist that wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion. Stressed that salvation came only from God, and those who were saved were chosen by God. Believed that success in business was a sign of Gods grace.

King Henry VIII: Led Englands Protestant reformation by starting the Church of England. Didnt have any religious disagreements, his break was due to political and personal reasons.

Tyndale: English priest that was influenced by Martin Luther. Attacked Church corruption and was then arrested and burned at the stake. Translated many books of the Bible and paved the way for the King James version.