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Semiconductors (Inorganic Vs.


Why semiconductors? Inorganic Vs. Organic Semiconductors Why organics? Why not Organics? Organic Electronics: Organic Semiconductors Applications: OLEDs Solar Cell Future of Organic Electronics

Electronic Materials

Resistivity Chart

Motivation : Why semiconductors?

The reasons semiconductor dominates are: Physical properties of semiconductor devices can be altered rapidly. Response of semiconductor devices to external inputs can be tailored in a manner that allows the devices to implement all needed information processing operations.

Types of Semiconductors



Silicon based inorganic material Covalently bonded crystals

Polymer based organic material (which are carbon based). Vander Waals bonded crystals.

Inorganic Vs. Organic: Material Properties

Some Inorganic Semiconductors


Like other industries, inorganic semiconductor technology feels the pressures of cost and performance.

Why Organic?
Organic electronics are lighter, more flexible. Materials can be chemically tuned so that they can be tailored to the need. Low-Cost Electronics

No vacuum processing No lithography (printing) Low-cost substrates (plastic, paper, even cloth) Direct integration on package (lower insertion costs)

Why Organic?
Comparison Example

Organic Electronic
Cost $5 / ft2 Low Capital

$100 / ft2 $1-$10 billion

Fabrication Cost
Device Size Material Required Conditions Process

10 ft x Roll to Roll
Flexible Plastic Substrate Ambient Processing Continuous Direct Printing

< 1m2
Rigid Glass or Metal Ultra Cleanroom Multi-step Photolithography

They are also biodegradable (being made from carbon).

This opens the door to many exciting and advanced new applications that would be impossible using copper or silicon.

Why not Organic?


Conductive polymers have high resistance and therefore are not good conductors of electricity. Because of poor electronic behavior (lower mobility), they have much smaller bandwidths. Shorter lifetimes and are much more dependant on stable environment conditions than inorganic electronics would be.

Organic Electronics
Organic semiconductors combines the advantages of both polymers and semiconductors
POLYMERS Light weight Simple Processing Flexibility SEMICONDUCTORS Tunability Opto-electronics

Organic Semiconductors
Organic Semiconductors

March Towards Moecular Electronics

A little bit of history in organic electronics

1950s: Work on crystalline organics materials starts.(At that time organic crystal where considered to be an alternative to silicon) 1987: Kodak group published the first efficient organic light emitting device (OLED) Results on the first organic transistor where published.

1990s: Friend group (Cambridge University) published the first results on polymer light emitting diodes.
2000: Noble prize in chemistry for the discovering and development of conductive polymers (Heeger, Mac Diarmid and Shirakawa). 2000s: Organic solar cells with efficiencies of >5% were realized.

Application Areas


Organic Electroluminescence Materials

A typical multilayer OLED structure

Basics of OLED
(1) Charge injection
(2) Charge transport (3) Exciton formation (4) Light emission

Basic Working Principle of OLED

Step by step mechanism of generation of light in a typical OLED structure


Examples of organic emitter materials with good efficiency:

(i) Green - Alq3 (tris (8-hdroxy-quinolinato)-aluminium) and Alq3 doped by N,Ndiphenyl-quinacridone (QAD) (ii) Red or red-orange Alq3 doped by PtOEP-(2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18- Octaethyl 21H, 23H-porphine platinum (II)) (iii) Blue Spiro-ANTH - Spiro-Anthracene.

Advantages of Organic LEDs

Extremely high brightness Turn on voltage as low as 3V High resolution Large viewing angle Thinner and light weight Less Expensive Flexible substrates A key benefit of OLEDs is that they dont need a backlight to function.