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Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial

Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems

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ANSYS 7.1 TUTORIAL
Magnetostatic problems

Ruben Specogna
A.A. 2005/06
Universit di Udine
Dipartimento DIEGM
Gruppo di Elettrotecnica
Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Magnetostatic problems
Usually the formulation used is based on magnetic vector
potential A:

First example:
Infinite rectangular massive
conductor carrying uniform
current density
It has planar symmetry 2D
b=h=10mm
ET PLANE53 for second order element for 2D magnetostatic
(both planar and axialsymmetric problems), see PLANE13 for 1st
order element

J A

0
1

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
V V
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Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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File Magnetostatica_2D_corr_imp_planare.txt

/PREP7 !start the preprocessing
/TITLE,2D Planar Magnetostatic !defining title
et,1,plane53 !defining element type (ET)
et,2,plane53
!plane13 for first order. For axisymmetrical problem add:
!keyopt,1,3,1 and keyopt,2,3,1
!syntax: KEYOPT,material_constant,kp_number,kp_value

b=10e-3 !geometric parameter
h=10e-3 !geometric parameter
curr=1 !current
Jsz=curr/(b*h) !corrensponding current density

mp,murx,1,1 ! Permeability of air
mp,murx,2,1 ! Permeability of the conductor
Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Model & materials
wpave,10*b/2,0 !setting a new working plane
rectng,-b/2,b/2,-h/2,h/2 !conductor
rectng,10*(-b/2),10*(b/2),10*(-h/2),10*(h/2) !air
asel,all !selecting all areas
aovlap,all !find intersections in the areas
numcmp,all !number compression
aplot !plotting areas

!material properties
!air
asel,all
aatt,1

!conductor
asel,s,,,1
aatt,2
Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Mesh, source & b. cond.s
!mesh generation
alls,all
smrtsize,1 !specify the refinement of the mesh
mshape,1 !triangular mesh
mshkey,0 !free meshing (not mapped mesh)
amesh,all !mesh all areas

!current source
esel,s,mat,,2 !selecting area 2 (massive conductor)
bfe,all,js,1,,,jsz !apply the source (body force element)
!Syntax: BFE, ELEM, Label, STLOC, VALx, VALy, VALz, VALphase

!boundary conditions
lsel,s,ext !select all external lines automatically
dl,all,,AZ,0,1 !force Az=0 on the nodes upon external lines
!Defines DOF constraints on lines.
!Syntax: DL, LINE, AREA, Label, Value1, Value2

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Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Solution & postprocessing
Finish
/SOLU
alls,all
antype,static !magnetostatic solution
solve
Finish

The results can be seen with the GUI at:
General Postprocessing PlotResult Contour Plot 2D Flux Lines
or:
General Postprocessing PlotResult Contour Plot Element Solution
and then select the variable to display: for ex. BSUM, JTSUM

Then we can plot a vector field with:
General Postprocessing PlotResult Vector Plot Predefined
and then choose for ex. B, H or JT (plf2d command)

Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Well consider an actuator. All materials are linear.
We would like to calculate the force on the mobile armature.
Due to axialsymmetry we will solve a 2D axialsymmetric problem.
EXAMPLE 2
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Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Preprocessing Example 2
/PREP7
/TITLE,2D Axisimmetrical Actuator
ET,1,PLANE53
KEYOPT,1,3,1 !activating key option for axialsymmetry
MP,MURX,1,1 !air
MP,MURX,2,1000 !iron
MP,MURX,3,1 !core (copper)
MP,MURX,4,2000 !iron
n=650 !some useful constants: number of turns
i=1.0 !current
ta=.75 !follows some geomtric constants
tb=.75
tc=.50
td=.75
wc=1
hc=2
gap=.25
space=.25

ws=wc+2*space
hs=hc+.75
w=ta+ws+tc
hb=tb+hs
h=hb+gap+td
acoil=wc*hc !coil area
jdens=n*i/acoil !coil current density
Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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The geometry
/PNUM,AREA,1 !with aplot will plot every area with different colors
RECTNG,0,w,0,tb
RECTNG,0,w,tb,hb
RECTNG,ta,ta+ws,0,h
RECTNG,ta+space,ta+space+wc,tb+space,tb+space+hc
AOVLAP,ALL

RECTNG,0,w,0,hb+gap
RECTNG,0,w,0,h
AOVLAP,ALL
NUMCMP,AREA
APLOT
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Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Materials
!default air mat = 1
ASEL,S,AREA,,2
AATT,3 !core
ASEL,S,AREA,,1
ASEL,A,AREA,,12,13,1
AATT,4 !upper iron
ASEL,S,AREA,,3,5,1
ASEL,A,AREA,,7,8,1
AATT,2 !lower iron

/PNUM,MAT,1 !(*)
ALLSEL,ALL
APLOT

!(*) with aplot will plot every material with
! different colors (like the figure)
Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Mesh and force computation
SMRTSIZE,3 !setting the refinement of the mesh
AMESH,ALL !mesh all the areas

ESEL,S,MAT,,4 !select elements of material 4
CM,ARM,ELEM !with this collection of elements creates the
!component named ARM

FMAGBC,'ARM !tells ANSYS that after solution I want to know
!the resulting force on the component ARM

ALLSEL,ALL
ARSCAL,ALL,,,.01,.01,1,,,1 !scaling lengths in meters

FINISH !finish the preprocessing

Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Bound. cond.s & solution
ESEL,S,MAT,,3 !selecting the coil material areas
BFE,ALL,JS,1,,,jdens/.01**2 !imposing the source
ESEL,ALL

NSEL,EXT !select automatically all boundary nodes
D,ALL,AZ,0 !impose A=0 on this nodes
ALLSEL,ALL
FINISH !finish the preprocessing

/SOLU
MAGSOLV !solve for magnetostatic
SAVE
FINISH
Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Postprocessing
/POST1

!plot 2D flux lines
PLF2D

!calculate the force on the ARM
FMAGSUM

!plot vector field B
PLVECT,B,,,,VECT,ELEM,ON

!plot |B| as a scalar field
PLNSOL,B,SUM

Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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EXAMPLE 3

3D actuator problem.

Saturable materials: the solution is non-linear.
(3 materials: air, core (saturable), armature (saturable). The coil is not meshed)

Due to symmetry we model only of the domain.

Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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/prep7
/title,3D Actuator
n=500 !turns of the coil
i=6 !current per turn
et,1,96 !element type solid96
mp,murx,1,1 !assign mur=1 at air

!activate a table for non-linear materials
tb,bh,2,,40 !B-H table
tbpt,,355,.7 !define all the points
!of the B-H curve
,,405,.8
,,470,.9
,,555,1.0
,,673,1.1
for all the points

tbcopy,bh,2,3 !copies the table
!from material 2 to material 3
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Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Geometry
/pnum,volu !plot the volumes numbers
block,0,63.5,0,25/2,0,25
/view,1,1,1,1 !change the angle of view (see syntax)
/replot !replot
block,38.5,63.5,0,25/2,25,125
block,13.5,63.5,0,25/2,125,150
vglue,all
block,0,12.5,0,5,26.5,125
block,0,13,0,5.5,26,125.5
vovlap,1,2
numcmp,volu
cyl4,,,0,0,100,90,175
vovlap,all
numcmp,volu
Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Material and meshing
vsel,s,,,1 !setting up materials
vatt,3
vsel,s,,,3,5
vatt,2
allsel,all

smrt,8
mshape,1,3d !tetrahedral mesh
mshkey,0 !free mesh
vmesh,all !mesh all volumes

/pnum,mat,1 !plot different materials with different colors
/number,1 !no numbers
eplot !plot elements
Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Source
esel,s,mat,,3
cm,arm,elem !create the component arm
fmagbc,'arm !will calculate force on arm
allsel,all
vlscale,all,,,.001,.001,.001,,0,1 !scaling in meters

local,12,0,0,0,75/1000 !change system of coordinates
wpcsys,-1 !define a wp based on the system of coord.

!define a racetrack coil
race,.0285,.0285,.014,n*i,.018,.0966,,,'coil1'
/eshape,1 !display the coil (it's NOT meshed)
eplot
save !save the database
finish
Specogna Ruben ANSYS Tutorial
Lecture 3 Magnetostatic Problems
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Bound. con.s & Solution
d,2,mag,0
allsel,all

/solu
magsolv,3,,,,,1
finish

/post1
fmagsum,'arm'
finish
save

/solu
*dim,cur,array,1
cur(1)=i
lmatrix,1,'coil','cur'
finish