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Beyond The Beyond

Presented By:Ujjawal Kumar

Introduction What is Cyborg? Types of Cyborg History First Cyborg: Kevin Warwick Man merged with a Computer Experiment Observations

Development Stages of Cyborg

Cyborg Culture Cyborg Proliferation in Society


Human + Machine Characteristics

CYBORG stands for Cybernetic Organism.
When an organism is half human and half machine

then we call them CYBORG

This invention was to change human natural

anatomy with technological supplements.

Cybernetics is the study of examining the design and

function of any system that have goals.

It involves the interdisciplinary study of the structure

of the regulatory system and is closely related to control theory and system theory.
Cybernetic models are widely used in determining

the proper relationship between a man and a machine.

What is a CYBORG?
Man-machine symbiosis

Study of communication and control of

machines together with organism.

Mixture of organism and technology :

Part Human Part Machine.

Cyborgology: Technical and socio-

philosophical study which deals with the development and spreading of the technology to the society.
Cyborgation: The process of

becoming Cyborg

Types of CYBORG?
Restorative Restores the lost function of organs and limbs

Bionic Arms

Enhanced Repair of broken or missing process to revert to healthy function

Artificial Heart Retinal Implants

Earlier man machine mixture was widespread in the science fiction only. E.g. The

TV series The Six Million dollar man, Star wars, Terminator series of movies

Gradually brain preservation started

The world's first cyborg was a white lab rat, part of an experimental program at New

York's Rockland State Hospital in the late 1950s

The studies and research are done to enhance human being who could survive in

extraterrestrial environments : due to space explorations.

Analogy with the Human Nervous System

A Central Nervous System (CNS) - where information is

processed. CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

A Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - a highway which allows signals to travel between the CNS and the body's receptors and effectors.

CNS acts as a Central Processing Unit (CPU) and processes

all the inputs it receives from the PNS known as stimuli The Nerve Conduction is in the form of Nerve Impulses which are Spikes of electromagnetic potential initiating from about -80mV then sharply rising to +60mV.

Kevin Warwick, "I, Cyborg"

First Cyborg: I, Cyborg Kevin Warwick






upgrading the human body starting with himself. He has taken the first step on the path , using himself surgical implants operation, connected to through a technological his central

nervous system.

First Cyborg: I, Cyborg Kevin Warwick

August, 1998 : Surgeons

implanted a silicon chip about 3mm wide into a Warwick's left arm and attached its 100





nerves. The wires were linked to a transmitter/receiver device to relay nerve messages to a

computer by radio signal.


Silicon chip transponder

implanted in professor Warwick's left arm.

Implant was encased in a

glass tube.

The chip receives signals

and sends them to a computer

Man merged with a Computer

The experiment allowed a computer to monitor Kevin as he moved through halls and offices using a unique identifying signal emitted by implanted chip.
He could operate doors, lights, heaters and computers without lifting a finger. The implant can carry all the info about a person from Visa details to National Insurance No. , Blood type, Medical Records, With data being updated where necessary.

Experiment Observations
By means of the implant, Warwick's nervous system

was connected onto the internet in Columbia University, New York. From there he was able to control the robot arm in the University of Reading and to obtain feedback from sensors in the finger tips.
computer said Hello when he entered.

At the main entrance, a voice box operated by the

Computer detected his progress through the building

opening the doors of his lab as he approached there and switching on the lights.


Professor Warwick was able to control an electronic

wheelchair and an intelligent artificial hand

Development Stages of the CYBORG

Four Stages: Stage I: Replacement of the Human skeleton. Eg wooden leg, false teeth, etc.

Nervous system have been eliminated at this stage.

Stage II: Replacement of muscle. Eg mechanical

heart, lens in eyes.

External replacement of muscles with engines. Depends on the intact neuro-musclar systems for their control.

Development Stages of the CYBORG

Stage III: Replacement of parts of the nervous

system. Eg Pacemaker, thermostat controlling the temp in spaces.

Stage IV: Replacement of parts of the central nervous

system. Eg Video camera eyes,

Replacing human brain power with computers. Involves imagination, perception, language, rational thoughts, etc.

Development Process of CYBORG

The point to emphasize is that the emergence of the cyborg is a process of progressive technological penetration into the body, eventually replacing the structures that mediate the various physical and mental attributes that we consider natural to human beings, including emotions, natural sensory, etc.

Cyborg Culture
In Euro American culture the most attention paid to

cyborg has to do with military applications: soldiers, sailors, airmen and astronauts.

The remote controlled dragonfly capable of transmitting video and other environmental

Cyborg Culture
Culture signifies: Meaning Capable of doing that humans can do Communication direct link via cyberspace with other cyborgs. Habitual Activity thoughts, imaginations, intuitions, wishes, etc can be electronically shared with other cyborgs.

Cyborg Proliferation in Society

In Medicine: Two different types of cyborg technologies.
Restorative technologies:

restore lost function, organs, and limbs.

Enhanced cyborg: follows

principle of optimal performance i.e maximising output and minimising input

In the military

Military organizations' research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for inter-species relationships for the purposes of a supposed a tactical advantage. DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark's unique senses would be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement and underwater explosives. DARPA has announced its interest in developing "cyborg insects" to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage.

Giving artificial sight to blind people. In a similar way artificial limbs to

people suffering from paralysis.

needed. signals.

Would be implemented in almost all fields where human interaction is

Diseases could be analysed and cured in terms of neural impulse

To establish intercommunication between two or more people without

using speech.

Human beings with extra senses

The human race will divide on the basis of biological haves and have-


Could easily become a new sort of dominant caste forcing the rest of

untechnologized humanity into serfdom.

A tremendous violation of human privacy. Once implanted with bio-implant electronic devices , Cyborgs might

become highly dependent upon the creators of these devices for their repair, recharge, and maintenance, thus placing them under the absolute control of designers of technology. risks towards human health.

This technology originate from people who foresee tremendous possible

The idea is that, in the future, we may have more and

more artificial body partsarms, legs, hearts, eyes and so ontill one might end up finally as a brain in a wholly artificial body. The use of Cyborg technology will convert humans into SuperHumans with powers never possessed by humans before. In the years ahead we will witness machines with an intelligence more powerful than that of humans