Global warming

Prepared for class discussion By Prof.S.Suryanarayanan

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Certain atmospheric gases are critical to this temperature balance and are known as greenhouse gases. • • • • • . On average.e. i.Process of global warming • The temperature of the Earth is controlled by the balance between the input from energy of the sun and the loss of this back into space. and warm the atmosphere. The greenhouse gases trap and re-emit some of this long-wave radiation. The Earth’s surface becomes warm and as a result emits long-wave ‘infrared’ radiation. about one-third of this solar radiation that hits the Earth is reflected back to space. Of the remainder. in the visible spectrum and ultraviolet radiation. some is absorbed by the atmosphere. but most is absorbed by the land and oceans. The energy received from the sun is in the form of short-wave radiation.

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• The same glass slows the heat from escaping. • Energy from the Sun penetrates the glass of a greenhouse and warms the air and objects within the greenhouse.Greenhouse effect • To a certain degree. resulting in much higher temperatures within the greenhouse than outside it. the earth acts like a greenhouse. .

Sun Greenhouse Effect .

Effect of global warming • Climate change-. melting of mountain glaciers and expansion of oceans. precipitation changes. ( IPCC assessed 1°above 1990 level by 2005 and 3°C by21st century ). storm intensity. • Rise in sea level • Pattern of agricultural production • Human health • Loss of bio diversity • Earth temperature expected to rise by 3 -5 °C if the concentration of CO2 doubles from present level resulting in rise in sea level. .regional temperature changes.

Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Gas .

biomass burning. . Nitrous oxide– from coal burning.burning of fossil fuels Methane– arises from rice paddies.landfills Chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs )—reaches atmosphere from refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. 2.burning of wood .Greenhouse gases 1. 4. 3. Carbon di oxide– main greenhouse gas. wetlands .

• Clean Development Mechanism—investment and funding developing countries.Control of greenhouse gases– global initiatives • Rio earth summit 1992. • IPCC under UNEP AND WMO ( Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change under Unite Nations Environmental Programme and World meteorological Organisation ). ( japan by 6%.EU by 8% ). carbon credits. • Kyoto protocol 1997– To reduce GHG to 5.2 % level below 1992 level by 2008-12. • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.US by &%. .

.Nitrous Oxide . compared to 1990 levels. 187 states have signed and ratified the protocol. 1997. In addition. Methane . has to this day not ratified it. while having signed the protocol in 1998. 2005 The essence of the Kyoto Protocol is that it calls for nations to commit themselves to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As of November 2009. despite being a member of the UNFCCC.S. the U. The United States' position on the Kyoto Protocol has been a subject of controversy and frustration amongst the international community. Japan on the 11th of December.Hydrofluorocarbons The goal is to reduce emissions by 5. but not enacted or enforced until the 16th of February.2%. The Kyoto Protocol's main goal is to reduce the presence of 4 harmful greenhouse gases (GHG's): Carbon Dioxide. Primarily because.com/kyotoprtocol ) • • • • • • • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto. ratifiers of the Kyoto Protocol can purchase carbon credits to help offset their emissions .The Kyoto Protocol Summary ( earthfriends.

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