You are on page 1of 12

UTM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

TOPIC 1 : HOW DO WE LEARN?


NURAZILA BT MOHD ARIFIN (LP 111077 ) Faculty of Education Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

LEARNING AND MEMORY


Psychologists - believe the process of remembering involves information passing from our short-term memory into our long-term memory. Information may be stored in the short-term memory for as little as a few seconds. The long-term memory can store information for a lifetime,but nearly all of what passes through our brain is promptly forgotten

. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL

. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

Suggests / advice for teachers (STM/LTM)


J. B. Watson, the father of the behaviourist school of psychology developed by B. F.Skinner, said that remembering depended on frequency and recency. Our knowledge about short- and long-term memories suggests the following advice for teachers :

1. Dont cover new material too quickly. If you tend to speak quickly, try to slow down. 2. Leave a silence after an important sentence, so as to leave time for it to sink in. 3. Students need activities which encourage them to process new material. Activities that make students use and hence develop a personal restructuring of the ideas you are trying to teach them will make them learn more effi ciently than passive activities such as listening.

. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

THREE SCHOOLS OF LEARNING


COGNITIVE LEARNING
BEHAVIOURIST LEARNING HUMANISTIC LEARNING

The cognitivist school looks at the thinking processes involved when we learn.

The behaviourist school ignores these, and looks at how teacher behaviour and other external factors infl uence learning.

The humanistic school has an interest in education as a means of meeting the learners emotional and developmental needs.

. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

CONSTRUC LEARNING

. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

Illustrated by a childrens story called Fish is Fish by Leo Lionni.

. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

TAXONOMY BLOOM

. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

COGNITIVE LEARNING
Common cognitivist or constructivist teaching strategies include: 1. Teaching by asking or guided discovery. 2. Diagnostic question and answer, and use of poor answers to explore and correct misunderstandings (Socratic questioning). 3. Explaining tasks that require students to express their understanding to each other or the teacher, especially if these explanations are formally or informally corrected. 4. Group work requiring students to discuss the material, so that constructs are made and peer checking and teaching takes place. This requires highorder tasks and questions

5. Students creating mind-maps or spider diagrams and other summaries that identify the key points and how these parts relate to the whole.
. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

BEHAVIORIST LEARNING
Learners require some reward or reinforcement for learning Reinforcement should follow the desired behaviour as soon as possible Learning proceeds step by step rather than happening all at once, and is strengthened by repeated success

. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

HUMANISTIC LEARNING The humanistic school believes that emotional factors, and personal growth and development, are the highest values Society, schools and colleges exist to meet the needs of the individual learner, not the other way round.

. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .

The main principles suggested by humanistic psychologists :


1. Learners should be self-directed 2. Students should take responsibility for their own learning 3. Self-assessment is preferable to teacher assessment 4. Learning is easiest, most meaningful and most effective when it takes 5. place in a non-threatening situation
. innovative . entrepreneurial . global .