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Stoichiometric Calculations

Hsin Chu
Professor
Dept. of Environmental Engineering
National Cheng Kung University
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# • The proportion of carbon dioxide in this mixture is therefore

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10.52

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8.52

  100%  9.51% wet 100%  11.74% dry

and

# performed for air above is required.

• Hence if we require a dry volume percentage
of the above products the following tabular
procedure is convenient:
Component
CO 2
Mass/kg fuel
kmoles/kg fuel
mole fraction
3.15
3.15
 0.0716
0.151
44
11.23
 0.4011
11.23
0.849
N 2
28
0.4727
• The stoichiometric combustion products are
thus 15.1% CO 2 and 84.9% N 2 .
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# considered to be available for burning the carbon, hydrogen and sulfur present. The nitrogen in the fuel is taken to appear as gaseous nitrogen in the combustion products.

• ## (b) the resulting %CO 2(dry) by volume in the combustion products.

• Solution:
Lay out the calculation on a tabular basis using 1 kg coal:
Mass (per kg)
O 2 Required
Products
44
32
0.9
3.3
0.9
2.4
Carbon
0.9
12
12
18
16
0.03
0.24
0.03
0.27
Hydrogen
0.03
2
2
32
0.005
0.005
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Sulfur
0.005
32
0.005
0.01
32
Oxygen
0.025
-0.025
-
Nitrogen
0.01
-
0.01
Ash
0.03
-
-
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# 10.36 + 0.01 = 10.37 kg N 2.

• A second tabular procedure can now be used for the volumetric
composition of the flue gases:
Product
Mass/kg coal
Mol. Wt. kmoles/kg coal
%volume
CO 2
3.3
44
0.075=(3.3/44)
16.25=(0.075/0.4614)
SO 2
0.01
64
0.000156
0.03
O
0.52
32
0.0162
3.51
2
0.37
N
10.37
28
80.20
2
0.4614
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# • This effect is illustrated in Table 2.1 (next slide). The carbon:hydrogen ratio in fuels lie between the limits of 75:25 (methane) to around 95:5 (high carbon coals).

Table 2.1 Carbon dioxide concentraton in flue
gases
C :
H (by mass)
Satoichiometric %CO 2
100
0
21.00
95
5
18.67
90
10
16.62
85
15
14.81
80
20
13.19
75
25
11.73
70
30
10.42
65
35
9.23
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# falls below the stoichiometric requirement the percentage of carbon monoxide in the flue gas increases very quickly.

Air fuel ratio
Figure 2.4 Sub-stiochiometric combustion of natural gas

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