You are on page 1of 47 Stoichiometric Calculations

Hsin Chu
Professor
Dept. of Environmental Engineering
National Cheng Kung University
1

routine maintenance intervals. complete its combustion. nitrogen 79% • A very small amount of nitrogen is oxidized but the resulting oxides of nitrogen (NO X) are not formed in sufficient quantities to concern us here. However, they are highly significant in terms of air pollution. products. • Excess air will always reduce the efficiency of a combustion system. / phase, or 8.52 if the water is condensed to a liquid. The two cases are usually abbreviated to “wet” and “dry”. • The proportion of carbon dioxide in this mixture is therefore

1

10.52

1

8.52

  100%  9.51% wet 100%  11.74% dry

and

• The instruments used to measure the composition of flue gases remove water vapor from the mixture and hence give a dry reading, so the dry flue gas composition is usually of greater usefulness. (dry). 16.1 2 ratio is 23:1. 23 14 • So each kg of oil requires 2.29 kg oxygen for combustion of its carbon and produces 3.15 kg CO 2as product. • In order to burn the hydrogen content of the oil 1.12 kg oxygen are needed and 1.26 kg water is formed.  0.767 • The stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio is thus 3.41 + 11.23 = 14.6 : 1 performed for air above is required.  • Hence if we require a dry volume percentage
of the above products the following tabular
procedure is convenient:
Component
CO 2
Mass/kg fuel
kmoles/kg fuel
mole fraction
3.15
3.15
 0.0716
0.151
44
11.23
 0.4011
11.23
0.849
N 2
28
0.4727
• The stoichiometric combustion products are
thus 15.1% CO 2 and 84.9% N 2 .
22

• In reality a mixture of sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide (SO 3) is produced, but it is conventional to assume combustion to SO 2when calculating air requirements. considered to be available for burning the carbon, hydrogen and sulfur present. The nitrogen in the fuel is taken to appear as gaseous nitrogen in the combustion products. • (b) the resulting %CO 2(dry) by volume in the combustion products.  • Solution:
Lay out the calculation on a tabular basis using 1 kg coal:
Mass (per kg)
O 2 Required
Products
44
32
0.9
3.3
0.9
2.4
Carbon
0.9
12
12
18
16
0.03
0.24
0.03
0.27
Hydrogen
0.03
2
2
32
0.005
0.005
64
Sulfur
0.005
32
0.005
0.01
32
Oxygen
0.025
-0.025
-
Nitrogen
0.01
-
0.01
Ash
0.03
-
-
26

3600 10.36 + 0.01 = 10.37 kg N 2.  • A second tabular procedure can now be used for the volumetric
composition of the flue gases:
Product
Mass/kg coal
Mol. Wt. kmoles/kg coal
%volume
CO 2
3.3
44
0.075=(3.3/44)
16.25=(0.075/0.4614)
SO 2
0.01
64
0.000156
0.03
O
0.52
32
0.0162
3.51
2
0.37
N
10.37
28
80.20
2
0.4614
29

• The volume percentage of oxygen or carbon dioxide in the flue gas will be influenced by the level of excess air and also by the carbon:hydrogen ratio present in the fuel. requires 8 kg oxygen. • This effect is illustrated in Table 2.1 (next slide). The carbon:hydrogen ratio in fuels lie between the limits of 75:25 (methane) to around 95:5 (high carbon coals).  Table 2.1 Carbon dioxide concentraton in flue
gases
C :
H (by mass)
Satoichiometric %CO 2
100
0
21.00
95
5
18.67
90
10
16.62
85
15
14.81
80
20
13.19
75
25
11.73
70
30
10.42
65
35
9.23
33

excess air for any given fuel. % by vol. lower value of this ratio.  range of fuels. This is different from the CO 2curves.   [2/(1+2+15.05)]×100%=11% 7. Sub-stoichiometric Combustion

(2) All the carbon in the fuel is then burned to carbon monoxide. (3) The remaining oxygen is consumed by burning carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. falls below the stoichiometric requirement the percentage of carbon monoxide in the flue gas increases very quickly.  Air fuel ratio
Figure 2.4 Sub-stiochiometric combustion of natural gas

C 3H 8+ 5 O 2→ 3 CO 2+ 4H 2O On a volumetric basis we have (5 × 0.95)=4.75 volumes of O 2available. This means that the accompanying nitrogen is 17.87 volumes. monoxide to carbon dioxide. • The remaining carbon monoxide is therefore (3-2.5)=0.5 volume. 2

2

- 