DETONATOR : TYPES

1.

BASED ON FUNCTION TYPE :A) PERCUSION TYPE B) ELECTRICAL TYPE

2. BASED ON IGNITION TYPE A) IGNEFEROUS TYPE B) DISRUPTIVE TYPE

DETONATOR : COMPOSITIONS
F1 COMPOSITION : HG-FULMIN. 28+1.5 %,POTA. CHLORATE 41.0 +- 2.2% ANTIMONY SULPHIDE 31.0+- 1.7% G1 COMPO. :- 27+-1.5 , 32.0+-1.7, 41.0+-2.2% RESPECTIVELY H1 COMPO. : 20.0+-1.1, 35.0+-1.0 & 45.0+-2.4 RESPECTIVELY. E1 19.0 +-1.0, 33.4+-1.8, 42.8+-2.2 RES. & GP=2.4+-0.3, SULPHUR 2.4+-0.3%

COMPOSITIONS USED
ASA MIX. : LEAD AZIDE 65+-2, Lead Styphnate 32.5+-2 Al Pd. 2.5+-2.4%  L-MIX : RD 1337 50.5+-2.5, RD 1651 (LDNR) 2.4, Barium Nitrate 100/170 = 45+-2.2, Tetrazine 5+-0.5 %  VH2 COMPO. BARIUM NITRATE 39.0+-3.0, Comp. RD1303 38.5+-3.0, CACIUM SILICIDE 75MM 11+-1.0, ANTIMONY SULPHIDE 125/90 = 5+-0.6, LEAD PEROXIDE 5+-0.6 , TETRAZINE2.5+-0.4%

Filling of detonator
i) Assembly of empties in filling mould.  ii) Transfer of explosive composition 10-15 grams in a anti-static rubber bowl .  iii) Dosing the charge mass by automatic dosing machine or by hand scooping. Operator works from behind safety shield.  iv) Transfer the charge mass through chute of ferrule.

Filling of detonator
 v)

Transfer of filled empties with mould under the pressing ram  vi) Operate the press (Pneumatic or hydraulic or by hand press)  vii) Cleaning of free dust by suction or by soft hair brush.  viii) Dismantling of ferrule part.

Filling of detonator

ix) Extraction of detonator from behind safety shield . x) Cleaning filled detonator by suction. xi) Inspection by gauging diameter &

length of filling i.e. height of filling.  xii) Closing of detonator with LTF disc in Turn over machine from behind safety shield.

Filling of detonator
 xiii)

Sealing the closed end with ammunition protective composition (A.P.C.) which may be either shellac based or N.C. base.  xiv) Packing and storage of passed serviceable detonators in approved boxes.

SAFETY IN THE OPERATION OF DETONATORS
i) All the operations are carried out from behind safety shield.  ii) Static charge should be removed by providing static conducting work table top.  iii) Smaller quantity of explosive is handled at a time.  iv) The composition is carried out manually using explosive carrying box

SAFETY IN THE OPERATION OF DETONATORS
 v)

Carrying man should not run but walk steadily.  vi) All the working machines and table tops are connected with earthing connection.  vii) All operations are to be carried out as per authorized G. S. Ds.  viii) Scrapping or nipping of the composition is not permitted.

SAFETY IN THE OPERATION OF DETONATORS
 ix)

In case of pressing punch getting struck up in the mould, extreme precaution is taken by bringing the mould, out of the working table.  x) Special precautions to be taken / dangers are to be explained by the supervision staff or by expert work mass on the line of production.

SAFETY TO BE TAKEN DURING MANUFACURE OF DETONATOR

a) Operative engaged must wear protective clothing (Fire proof and which does not generate static charges). b) Operation must be carried out from behind safety shield and composition to be kept into the before shield. c) Operative must use eye shield and wear gloves that protects the palm and wrist. Detonators can only be handled by means of a tweezers.

SAFETY TO BE TAKEN DURING MANUFACURE OF DETONATOR

d) During filling the amount of composition present should be kept in “ANTI STATIC RUBBER BOWL” and in minimum quantity. e) All movements are to be controlled from behind a steel shield. f) Presses are covered with a steel guard and that can contain the effect of an "UNINTENTIONAL EXPLOSION”

SAFETY TO BE TAKEN DURING MANUFACURE OF DETONATOR
 g)

Extraction , cleaning and varnishing operations are suitably guarded.  h) No. of detonators present at one time is kept “LIMITED”  i) For transport and packing, each detonator is packed in a hole in felt and are kept sandwiched between felt pieces.

SAFETY TO BE TAKEN DURING MANUFACURE OF DETONATOR
j) All the operators are checked Periodically for static charge accumulation by “PERSONAL TESTER”  k) Relative humidity (RH) should be maintained in the room which is around 55 % to 65 %.  l) Operatives engaged in the work should have a good eye sight and without any influence of liquor.

SAFETY TO BE TAKEN DURING MANUFACURE OF DETONATOR
m) Shops must be kept scrupulously clean, free from dust and all crevices and joints.  n) Illumination in the working place should be proper in range of 200 to 300 LUX.  o) The supervisory staff must keep very alert and they must contain a strict control of operators and proper handling of explosives.

SAFETY TO BE TAKEN DURING MANUFACURE OF DETONATOR
p) Un-accepted filled detonators and explosive dust/sweepings are to be kept under oil/ water for desensitizing and proper functioning.  q) All operations are to be strictly carried out as per authorized G. S. Ds.  r) Scrapping and nipping of the composition is not permitted.

PROOF TESTING
PROOF TESTING IS ESSENTIAL FOR SAFE HANDLING AS WELL AS FOR PROPER FUNCTIONING IN ROUND 2. SENSITIVITY PROOF :- SAMPLE OF LOT IS TESTED BY DROPPING A ONE OUNCE STEEL BALL ON THE STRIKER RESTING ON THE DETONATOR. THE HEIGHT FROM WHICH THE BALL CAN BE DROPPED IS VARIED TILL IT GIVES 100% IGNITION AND T0% IGNITION. A RUN DOWN SENSITIVITY TEST IS ONE THAT TEST DETONATORS AT REGULAR INTERVALS OF HEIGHT 1” OR HALF INCH INTERVALS BETWEEN THE 100% & 0% IGNITION POINTS. THE 50% POINT CAN BE DETERMINED BY PLOTTING THE PERCENTAGES OF MISFIRES AGAINST HEIGHT OF DROP ON APPLYING THE RESULT TO THE FORMULA H = h + m (1/2 + f / t) WHERE H=50% POINT , h = HT. WHEN ALL FIRED, m= HT. INTERVAL BETWEEN TESTS , f TOTAL FAILURE BETWEEN 0% & 100% (POINTS INCLUSIVE) AND t= NUMBER TESTED AT EACH TEST HEIGHT

PROOF TESTING

DROP TEST : (INSENSITIVITY) : AS MOST OF DETONATORS HAVE TO WITH STAND THE FORCES OF ACCELERATION WHEN A FUZE IS FIRED FROM A GUN, IT FOLLOWS THAT THEY MUST BE TESTED TO SEE IF THEY ARE SAFE TO BE SO TREATED. IN THIS TEST, THE ACCELERATION FORCE OF SET BACK IS SIMULATED BY A DROP AND REBOUND TEST. THE DETONATORS EITHER SINGLY OR 10 AT A TIME ARE CLAMPED IN A PERFORATED PLATE BETWEEN A LEATHER DISC AND THE WEIGHT, A COVER PLATE BEING FITTED. THEY MUST NOT FIRE WHEN THE WEIGHT IS DROPPED.

PROOF TESTING
 

PRESSURE BAR TEST :WHEN A DISRUPTIVE DETONATOR FIRES, A SHOCK WAVE IS DIRECTED FROM THE BASE OF THE DETONATOR & THIS WAVE INITIATED THE EXPLOSIVE IN THE FUZE. TO DETERMINE THAT THE DETONATORS ARE POWERFUL ENOUGH TO DETONATE THE CHAIN OF EXPLOSIVE, A SAMPLE IS TESTED BY A “PRESSURE BAR” AND THE POWER TO EACH DETONATOR CALCULATED. ON THE 0.4” BAR, A 1.8 GRAIN DETONATOR MUST GIVE A MINIMUM PRESSURE OF 12 TONS/SQ.INCH FOR MOST OF THE DISRUPTIVE DETONATORS, VARY BETWEEN 6.5 TO 11 TONS ACCORDING TO SIZE.

PROOF TESTING

FLASH TEST : IGNEFEROUS DETONATORS MUST SEND A FLASH FORWARD ON TO ANOTHER DETONATOR SLEEVE OR GUN POWDER. THEY ARE THEREFORE TESTED TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE FLASH PRODUCED WILL IGNITE A G.P. AT A SPECIFIED DISTANCE. FLASH PICK UP TEST : THE 1.8 GR. AND 5.7 GR. DETONATORS MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING IGNITED FROM THE FLASH OF AN IGNEFEROUS DETONATOR AT A SPECIFIED DISTANCE. THE IGNEF. DETONATOR IS SITUATED BETWEEN 1 & 3” AWAY FROM THE DISRUPTIVE DETONATOR IN THIS TEST.

PROOF TESTING
JOGGLE TEST : TO DETERMINE WHETHER THIS LOT OF DETONATORS IS SAFE TO HANDLE THE JOGGLE USED FOR EXTERNAL CLEANING IS USED TO GIVE VIOLENT AGITATION TO THE DETONATORS BY RUNNING IT AT 320 COMPLETE AMPLITUDES /MINUTES  THE DETONATORS 5 AT A TIME ARE AGITATED IN THE APPARATUS TOGETHER WITH TWO STEEL BALLS (1/2” OR 5/16” DIA) FOR 15 MINUTES THE DETONATORS MUST NOT FIRE OR OTHERWISE THE LOT WILL NOT BE TAKEN IN TO USE.

PROOF TESTING
 

IMPACT TEST : THIS IS DONE TO COMPARE THE SENSITIVITY OF THE RUN OF PRODUCTION ON DETONATOR FILLING. A BLUNT STRIKER RESTING ON THE DETONATOR IS STRUCK BY A FALLING WEIGHT. THE CRUSHING OF THE DETONATOR MAY RESULT IN AN IGNITION USUALLY 20 DETONATORS OF A LOT ARE TESTED AND THE HEIGHT AND WEIGHT ARE SUCH THAT ABOUT SIX DETONATORS SHOULD FIRE. THIS TEST CAN BE USED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT BATCHES OF COMPOSITION , THE METHODS OF CLOSURE OR ANY OTHER VARIABLES IN THE FILLING TECHNIQUE.

THANKS

FOR PATIENCE LISTENING

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