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OCE421 Marine Structure Designs Lecture #19 (Wave Forces on Vertical Cylinder)

Definition Sketch
z
f = fi + fd 2 du cd D = cm + D ujuj 4 dt 2 x z=0 f i dz f d dz

dz

z = -d

Morison Equation
horizontal force per unit length of a vertical cylindrical pile

2 du cd D + D ujuj f = f i + f d = cm 4 dt 2
f i = inertia force per unit length of pile f d = drag force per unit length of pile = density of fluid (1025 kg/m3 for sea water) D = diameter of pile u=
du = dt

horizontal water particle velocity at the axis of the pile horizontal water particle acceleration at the axis of the pile

cm ; cd = inertia (mass) and drag coefficient, respectively

Usage of Morison Equation


Morison's equation is valid for all ratios of pile diameter to wave length:

D 1 < L 20
Two problems: Given d, H andT, which wave theory should be used? For a particular wave condition, what are appropriate values of cd and cm?

Drag and Inertia Coefficients


Drag coefficients to be used in Morison's equation can only be obtained experimentally. In theory, the value of the inertia coefficient can be calculated (2.0 for a smooth cylinder in an ideal fluid). However, measured values are used in practice, particularly when drag is the dominant force. One problem facing the user of Morison's equation is the larger scatter in values of the inertia and drag coefficients. There is a useful degree of correlation between the coefficients and two flow parameters: KeuleganCarpenter number and Reynolds number.

K-C & Reynolds Number


Keulegan-Carpenter number Reynolds number

Um T K = D
Um = velocity amplitude of the flow T= =
period of the flow

Um D Re =

D = diameter of pile
kinematic viscosity (approximately 10-5 ft2/sec for sea water).

Inertia & Drag Coefficients (API,1980)


Engineering practice is simply to assume them constant, with the values of the drag coefficient chosen within the range 0.6 to 1.0 and the values of the inertia coefficient within the range 1.5 to 2.0 (API,1980)

Linear Wave Theory


wave elevation

H = cos(kx t) 2
horizontal water particle velocity
2 @ @ @ 2 gcosh= 0 + z) = 0 + @ k(d at z H z @ t u= = cos(kx t) @ x T sinh kd 2 = gk tanh kd

Horizontal Acceleration
du ax = dt
Note:

u(x; z; t)

@ dx @ dz @ u u u ax = + + @ z } t | x dt { z @ dt | @ { z} convective local acceleration acceleration


for small wave steepness

@ u @ @ u u ax = u + w + @ x @ @ z t

Horizontal Force & Moment


horizontal force (F) Z Z F = f i dz + f d dz
d d

= Fi + Fd

moment about the mud line (M) Z Z M = (z + d)f i dz + (z + d)f d dz d d M i = (Fi d) Si M i = (Fi d) Si = Mi + Md M d = (Fd d) Sd M d = (Fd d) Sd

dimensionless c m Fi = D 2H K i g c4 Fd = d D H 2 K d g 2

Horizontal Force & Moment (contd.)


Z F =
d

Z f i dz +
d

f d dz
0 (still water level)

Z M =
d

Z (z + d)f i dz +
d

(z + d)f d dz

If the upper limit of integration is zero instead of h and linear wave theory is used, analytical expression of Ki , Kd , Si , Sd can be obtained (SPM Eq. 7-33 ~ 7-36)

Maximum Forces & Moments


maximum inertia force Fi ;max = maximum drag force

Fd;max =
M i ;max = M d;max =

c m D 2H K i ;max g c4 d D H 2 K d;max g 2 Fi ;max d Si ;max Fd;max d Sd;max

Using Dean's stream-function theory, graphs [SPM: Fig. (7-71) through Fig. (7-74)] have been prepared and may be used to obtain K i ;max, K d;max, M i ;max and M d;max

SPM: Fig. (7-71)


K i ;max vs. d=gT 2, for H =H b = 0, 1/ 4, 1/ 2, 3/ 4 and 1.

Maximum Total Forces/Moments


maximum total force

Fmax = m dH 2D gc

m and m are functions of maximum total moment d M max = m gc m and m are functions of dH 2D d gT 2 d H gT nd mm and m are functions of 2 are functions of gT 2 dH d cm D 2 = gTgT 2 2 gT cd H H c D H m relative wave inertia-drag =2 gT c H gT 2 depth steepness ratio index d

SPM: Fig. (7-76)


Isolines of m vs. H =gT 2 and d=gT 2, for = 0:05.

Figs. (7-77) through (7-79) are for = 0.1, 0.5 and 1.

SPM: Fig. (7-80)


Isolines of m vs. H =gT 2 and d=gT 2, for = 0:05.

Figs. (7-81) through (7-84) are for = 0.1, 0.5 and 1.

Example Problem: SPM, p. 7-127


A design wave with height H=3 m and period T=10 s acts on a vertical circular pile with a parameter D=0.3 m in depth d=4.5 m. Assume that cm=2, cd= 0.7, and the density of seawater r=1025.2 kg/m3. Find: The maximum total horizontal force and the maximum total moment around the mud line of the pile.

Transverse Forces (Lift Forces)


Transverse forces result from vortex or eddy shedding on the downstream side of a pile. Transverse forces were found to depend on the dynamic response of the structure. For rigid structures, transverse forces equal to the drag force is a reasonable upper limit. Eddies are shed at a frequency that is twice the wave frequency

Design Estimates of Lift Force


SPMs recommendation for design lift force:

FL = FL ;max cos(2) c = L H 2 K d;max cos(2) gD 2


cL = empirical lift coefficient (analogous to the drag coefficient)
maximum horizontal velocity (velocity amplitude) T averaged over the depth

umax K = D

1 umax = (umax)bottom + (umax)swl 2

Example Problem: SPM, p. 7-133


A design wave with height H=3 m and period T=10 s acts on a vertical circular pile with a parameter D=0.3 m in depth d=4.5 m. Assume that cm=2, cd= 0.7, and the density of seawater r=1025.2 kg/m3. Find: The maximum transverse (lift) force acting on the pile and the approximate time variation of the transverse force assuming that Airy theory adequately predicts the velocity field. Also estimate the maximum total force.