Characteristics of Instrumentation

Measurement Engineering .

Measurement Engineering There are many possible physical measurement variables. .

Measurement Engineering .

Measurement Engineering Passive sensors Passive sensors do not add energy as part of the measurement process but may remove energy in their operation. Active sensors add energy to the measurement environment as part of the Measurement process. where the distance to some object is measured by actively sending out a radio (radar) or acoustic (sonar) wave to reflect off of some object and measure its range from the sensor. An example of an active sensor is a radar or sonar system. . the temperature gradient in the environment generates a thermoelectric voltage that becomes the signal variable. which converts a physical temperature into a voltage signal. In this case. One example of a passive sensor is a thermocouple.

Measurement Engineering The relationship between the physical measurement variable input and the signal variable (output) for a specific sensor is known as the calibration of the sensor. .

Measurement Engineering .

.Measurement Engineering The accuracy of an instrument is defined as the difference between the true value of the measurand and the measured value indicated by the instrument.

One class of cause factors are those that change the input–output response of a sensor resulting in miscalibration. This is the error that results when an observer reads a dial from a non-normal angle . using the sensor at a temperature other than the calibrated temperature will result in a systematic error. The modifying inputs and interfering inputs discussed above can result in sensor miscalibration. systematic errors or bias can be introduced by human observers when reading the measurement. if the systematic error source is known.Measurement Engineering There are a variety of factors that can result in systematic measurement errors. it can be corrected for by the use of compensation methods . In many cases. if temperature is a modifying input. A common example of observer bias error is parallax error. For example.

which is defined as a signal that carries no useful information. it will exhibit a Gaussian distribution. If a measurement with true random error is repeated a large number of times. .Measurement Engineering Random error is sometimes referred to as noise.

Measurement Engineering .