# Chapter Objectives

 Navigate between rectilinear co-ordinate system for strain
components
 Determine principal strains and maximum in-plane shear strain
 Determine the absolute maximum shear strain in 2D and 3D cases
 Know ways of measuring strains
 Define stress-strain relationship
 Predict failure of material
2. Applications
3. Equations of plane-strain transformation
4. Principal and maximum in-plane shear strain
5. Mohr’s circle for plane strain
6. Absolute maximum shear strain
7. Measurement of strains
8. Stress-strain relationship
9. Theories of failure
10. Concept Quiz
In-class Activities
1) Which of the following statement is incorrect
for plane-strain?

a) σ
z
= γ
yz
= γ
xz
= 0 while the plane-strain has 3 components σ
x
, σ
y

and γ
xy
.

b) Always identical to the state of plane stress

c) Identical to the state of plane stress only when the Poisson’s
ratio is zero.

d) When the state of strain is represented by the principal strains,
no shear strain will act on the element.
2) Which of the following failure criteria is not
suitable for brittle materials?

a) Maximum-normal-stress theory

b) Mohr’s failure criterion

c) Tresca yield criterion

d) None of them
APPLICATIONS
EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN
TRANSFORMATION
• In 3D, the general state of strain at a point is
represented by a combination of 3 components of
normal strain σ
x
, σ
y
, σ
z
, and 3 components of shear
strain γ
xy
, γ
yz
, γ
xz
.

• In plane-strain cases, σ
z
, γ
xz
and γ
yz
are zero.

• The state of plane strain at a point is uniquely
represented by 3 components (σ
x
, σ
y
and γ
xy
) acting on
an element that has a specific orientation at the point.
EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN
TRANSFORMATION (cont)
Note: Plane-stress case ≠ plane-strain case
EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN
TRANSFORMATION (cont)
• Positive normal strain σ
x
and σ
y
cause elongation
• Positive shear strain γ
xy
causes small angle AOB
• Both the x-y and x’-y’ system follow the right-hand rule
• The orientation of an inclined plane (on which the
normal and shear strain components are to be
determined) will be defined using the angle θ. The angle
is measured from the positive x- to positive x’-axis. It is
positive if it follows the curl of the right-hand fingers.

EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN
TRANSFORMATION (cont)
• Normal and shear strains
– Consider the line segment dx’
u
u
sin '
cos '
dy dy
dx dx
=
=
u
¸
u
c c c c
c
u
¸
u
c c c c
c
u u ¸ u c u c
o
c
u ¸ u c u c o
2 sin
2
2 cos
2 2
2 sin
2
2 cos
2 2
cos sin sin cos
'
cos sin cos '
'
'
2 2
'
xy y x y x
y
xy y x y x
x
xy x x x
xy y x
dx
x
dy dy dx x
÷
÷
÷
+
=
+
÷
+
+
=
+ + = =
+ + =
EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN
TRANSFORMATION (cont)

• Similarly,
( ) u ¸ u u c c o
u ¸ u c u c
2
sin cos sin
sin cos sin '
xy y x
xy y x
dy dy dx dy
÷ + ÷ =
÷ + ÷ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ° + ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
° + ÷ ° + ° + + ÷ =
90 cos sin cos
90 sin 90 cos 90 sin
2
2
u ¸ u u c c
u ¸ u u c c |
xy y x
xy y x
y
EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN
TRANSFORMATION (cont)
( ) ( )
u
¸
u
c c ¸
u u ¸ u u c c | o ¸
2 cos
2
2 sin
2 2
sin cos cos sin
' '
2 2
' '
xy y x y x
xy y x y x
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
EXAMPLE 1
A differential element of material at a point is subjected to a
state of plane strain
which tends to distort the element as shown in Fig. 10–5a.
Determine the equivalent strains acting on an element of the
material oriented at the point, clockwise 30° from the
original position.
( ) ( ) ( )
6 6 6
10 200 , 10 300 , 10 500
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ = =
xy y x
¸ c c
EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
• Since θ is positive counter-clockwise,

Solutions
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) (Ans) 10 213
30 2 sin
2
10 200
30 2 cos 10
2
300 500
10
2
300 500
2 sin
2
2 cos
2 2
6
'
6
6 6
'
÷
÷
÷ ÷
= ¬
° ÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ ° ÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
+
(
¸
(

¸

÷ +
=
+
÷
+
+
=
x
xy y x y x
x
c
u
¸
u
c c c c
c
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) (Ans) 10 793
30 2 cos
2
10 200
30 2 sin 10
2
300 500
2 cos
2
2 sin
2 2
6
' '
6
6
' '
÷
÷
÷
= ¬
° ÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ ° ÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷ =
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
y x
xy y x y x
¸
u
¸
u
c c ¸
EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
• By replacement,

Solutions
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) (Ans) 10 4 . 13
60 2 sin
2
10 200
60 2 cos 10
2
300 500
10
2
300 500
2 sin
2
2 cos
2 2
6
'
6
6 6
'
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ = ¬
°
(
¸
(

¸

+ °
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
+
(
¸
(

¸

÷ +
=
+
÷
+
+
=
x
xy y x y x
y
c
u
¸
u
c c c c
c
PRINCIPLE AND MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR
STRAIN
• Similar to the deviations for principal stresses and the
maximum in-plane shear stress, we have

• And,

2 2
2 , 1
2 2 2
2 tan
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
±
+
=
÷
=
xy y x y x
y x
xy
p
¸ c c c c
c
c c
¸
u
2
,
2 2 2
2 tan
2 2
plane - in max y x
avg
xy y x
xy
y x
S
c c
c
¸ c c ¸
¸
c c
u
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
PRINCIPLE AND MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR
STRAIN (cont)
• When the state of strain is represented by the principal
strains, no shear strain will act on the element.

• The state of strain at a point can also be represented in
terms of the maximum in-plane shear strain. In this case
an average normal strain will also act on the element.

• The element representing the maximum in-plane shear
strain and its associated average normal strain is 45°
from the element representing the principal strains.

EXAMPLE 2
A differential element of material at a point is subjected to a
state of plane strain defined by
which tends to distort the element as shown in Fig. 10–7a.
Determine the maximum in-plane shear strain at the point
and the associated orientation of the element.
( ) ( ) ( )
6 6 6
10 80 , 10 200 , 10 350
÷ ÷ ÷
= = ÷ =
xy y x
¸ c c
EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
• Looking at the orientation of the element,

• For maximum in-plane shear strain,

Solutions
° ° = ¬
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
31 1 and 9 . 40
80
200 350
2 tan
s
xy
y x
s
u
¸
c c
u
( ) (Ans) 10 556
2 2 2
6
plane in max
2 2
plane in max
÷
= ¬
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
¸
¸ c c ¸
xy y x
MOHR’S CIRCLE FOR PLANE STRAIN
• A geometrical representation of Equations 10-5 and 10-
6; i.e.

• Sign convention: ε is positive to the right, and γ/2 is
positive downwards.

2 2
2 2
and
2
where
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=
xy y x y x
avg
R
¸ c c c c
c
( )
2
2
' ' 2
'
2
R
y x
avg x
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
¸
c c
MOHR’S CIRCLE FOR PLANE STRAIN (cont)
EXAMPLE 3
The state of plane strain at a point is represented by the
components:

Determine the principal strains and the orientation of the
element.
( ) ( ) ( )
6 6 6
10 120 , 10 150 , 10 250
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ = =
xy y x
¸ c c
EXAMPLE 3 (cont)
• From the coordinates of point E, we have

• To orient the element, we can determine
the clockwise angle.
Solutions
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
6
6
plane in max
' '
6
plane in max
' '
10 50
10 418
10 8 . 208
2
÷
÷
÷
=
=
=
avg
y x
y x
c
¸
¸
( )
(Ans) 7 . 36
35 . 8 2 90 2
1
1
° =
° ÷ ° =
s
s
u
u
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM SHEAR STRAIN
• State of strain in 3-dimensional space:
2
min max
min max max abs
c c
c
c c ¸
+
=
÷ =
avg
EXAMPLE 4
The state of plane strain at a point is represented by the
components:

Determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the
absolute maximum shear strain.
( ) ( ) ( )
6 6 6
10 150 , 10 200 , 10 400
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
xy y x
¸ c c
EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
• From the strain components, the centre of the circle is on the ε axis at

• Since , the reference point has coordinates

• Thus the radius of the circle is

Solutions
( ) ( )
6 6
10 100 10
2
200 400
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷
=
avg
c
( )
6
10 75
2
÷
=
xy
¸
( ) ( ) ( )
6 6
10 75 , 10 400
÷ ÷
÷ A
( ) ( ) ( )
9 6 2
2
10 309 10 75 100 400
÷ ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ = R
EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
• Computing the in-plane principal strains, we have

• From the circle, the maximum in-plane shear strain is

• From the above results, we have

• Thus the Mohr’s circle is as follow,

Solutions
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
6 6
min
6 6
max
10 409 10 309 100
10 209 10 309 100
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ = ÷ ÷ =
= + ÷ =
c
c
( ) | |( ) ( ) (Ans) 10 618 10 409 209
6 6
min max plane in max
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ = c c ¸
( ) ( ) 10 409 , 0 , 10 209
6
min int
6
max
÷ ÷
÷ = = = c c c
MEASUREMENT OF STRAINS BY STRAIN
ROSETTES
• Ways of arranging 3 electrical-resistance strain gauges

• In general case (a):
c c xy c y c x c
b b xy b y b x b
a a xy a y a x a
u u ¸ u c u c c
u u ¸ u c u c c
u u ¸ u c u c c
cos sin sin cos
cos sin sin cos
cos sin sin cos
2 2
2 2
2 2
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
VARIABLE SOLUTIONS
variable solutions
MEASUREMENT OF STRAINS BY STRAIN
ROSETTES (cont)
• In 45° strain rosette [case (b)],

• In 60° strain rosette [case (c)],

( )
c a b xy
c y
a x
o o o ¸
o o
o o
+ ÷ =
=
=
2
( )
( )
c b xy
a c b y
a x
c c ¸
c c c c
c c
+ =
÷ + =
=
3
2
2 2
2
1
EXAMPLE 5
The state of strain at point A on the bracket in Fig. 10–17a is
measured using the strain rosette shown in Fig. 10–17b. Due

Determine the in-plane principal strains at the point and the
directions in which they act.
( ) ( ) ( )
6 6 6
10 264 , 10 135 , 10 60
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
c b a
c c c
EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
• Measuring the angles counter-clockwise,

• By substituting the values into the 3 strain-transformation equations, we
have

• Using Mohr’s circle, we have A(60(10
-6
), 60(10
-6
)) and center C (153(10
-6
),
0).

Solutions
° = ° = ° = 120 and 60 , 0
c b a
u u u
( ) ( ) ( )
6 6 6
10 149 , 10 246 , 10 60
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = = =
z y x
c c c
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
(Ans) 3 . 19
, 10 9 . 33
, 10 272
10 1 . 119 10 5 . 74 60 153
p2
6
1
6
1
6 6 2
2
° =
=
=
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ =
÷
÷
÷ ÷
u
c
c
R
STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP
• Use the principle of superposition

• Use Poisson’s ratio,

• Use Hooke’s Law (as it applies in the uniaxial direction),
al longitudin lateral
uc c ÷ =
E o c =
( ) | | ( ) | | ( ) | |
y x z z z x y y z y x x
v
E
v
E
v
E
o o o c o o o c o o o c + ÷ = + ÷ = + ÷ =
1
,
1
,
1
STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP (cont)
• Use Hooke’s Law for shear stress and shear strain

• Note:
xz xz yz yz xy xy
G G G
t ¸ t ¸ t ¸
1

1

1
= = =
( ) v
E
G
+
=
1 2
STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP (cont)
• Dilatation (i.e. volumetric strain )
z y x
V
v
e c c c
o
+ + = =
( )
z y x
E
v
e o o o + +
÷
=
2 1
STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP (cont)

• Where the right-hand side is defined as bulk modulus R,
i.e.

( ) v
E
e
P
p
z y x
2 1 3 ÷
=
÷ = = = o o o
( ) v
E
k
2 1 3 ÷
=
EXAMPLE 6
The copper bar in Fig. 10–24 is subjected to a uniform
loading along its edges as shown. If it has a length a = 300
mm, b = 500 mm, and t = 20 mm before the load is applied,
determine its new length, width, and thickness after
application of the load. Take 34 . 0 , GPa 120 = =
cu cu
v E
EXAMPLE 6 (cont)

• The associated normal strains are determined from the generalized
Hooke’s law,

• The new bar length, width, and thickness are therefore

Solutions
0 , 80 , MPa 500 , MPa 800 = = ÷ = =
z x y x
o t o o
( ) ( ) ( ) 000850 . 0 , 00643 . 0 , 00808 . 0 ÷ = + ÷ = ÷ = + ÷ = = + ÷ =
y x
z
z z x
y
y z y
x
x
E
v
E E
v
E E
v
E
o o
o
c o o
o
c o o
o
c
( )
( )( )
( )( ) (Ans) mm 98 . 19 20 000850 . 0 20 '
(Ans) mm 68 . 49 50 00643 . 0 50 '
(Ans) mm 4 . 302 300 00808 . 0 300 '
= ÷ + =
= ÷ + =
= + =
t
b
a
THEORIES OF FAILURE (for ductile material)
• Maximum-shear-stress theory (or Tresca yield criterion)
2
max
Y
o
t =
THEORIES OF FAILURE (for ductile material) (cont)
• For plane-stress cases:

} signs opposite have ,
signs same have ,
2 1 2 1
2 1
2
1
o o o o o
o o
o o
o o
Y
Y
Y
= ÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
=
=
THEORIES OF FAILURE (for ductile material) (cont)
• Maximum-distortion-energy theory (or Von Mises
criterion):

• Applying Hooke’s Law yields

oc
2
1
= u
( ) | |
2 3 3 1 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
o o o o o o o o o + + ÷ + + = v
E
u
THEORIES OF FAILURE (for ductile material) (cont)
• For plane or biaxial-stress cases:
2 2
2 2 1
2
1 Y
o o o o o = + ÷
THEORIES OF FAILURE (for ductile material) (cont)
• Maximum-normal-stress theory (for materials having
equal strength in tension and compression)

• Maximum principle stress σ
1
in the material reaches a
limiting value that is equal to the ultimate normal stress
the material can sustain when it is subjected to simple
tension.
THEORIES OF FAILURE (for ductile material) (cont)
• For plane-stress cases:
ult 2
ult 1
o o
o o
=
=
THEORIES OF FAILURE (for ductile material) (cont)
• Mohr’s failure criterion (for materials having different
strength in tension and compression
• Perform 3 tests on the material to obtain the failure
envelope
• Circle A represents compression test results σ
1
= σ
2
=
0, σ
3
= – (σ
ult
)
c
• Circle B represents tensile test results, σ
1
= (σ
ult
)
t
, σ
2
=
σ
3
= 0
• Circle C represents pure
torsion test results, reaching the τ
ult
.
THEORIES OF FAILURE (for ductile material) (cont)
• For plane-stress cases:
EXAMPLE 7
The solid shaft has a radius of 0.5 cm and is made of steel
having a yield stress of σ
Y
= 360 MPa. Determine if the
shear-stress theory and the maximum-distortion-energy
theory.

EXAMPLE 7 (cont)
• Since maximum shear stress caused by the torque, we have

• Principal stresses can also be obtained using the stress-transformation
equations,

Solutions
( )
( )
( )
MPa 5 . 165 kN/cm 55 . 16
5 . 0
2
5 . 0 25 . 3
MPa 195 kN/cm 10 . 19
5 . 0
15
2
4
2
= = = =
= ÷ = = =
t
t
t
o
J
Tc
A
P
xy
x
MPa 6 . 286 and MPa 6 . 95
2 2
2 1
2
2
2 , 1
÷ = = ¬
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
±
+
=
σ σ
xy
y x y x
t
o o o o
o
EXAMPLE 7 (cont)
• Since the principal stresses have opposite signs, the absolute maximum
shear stress will occur in the plane,

• Thus, shear failure of the material will occur according to this theory.

• Using maximum-distortion-energy theory,

• Using this theory, failure will not occur.
Solutions
( )
360 2 . 382
360 6 . 286 6 . 95

2 1
>
s ÷ ÷
s ÷
Y
o o o
( )
( )( ) ( ) | |
129600 9 . 118677
360 6 . 286 6 . 286 6 . 95 6 . 95

2
2
2
2 2
2 2 1
2
1
s
s ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
s + ÷
Y
o o o o o
CONCEPT QUIZ
1) Which of the following statement is incorrect?

a) Dilatation is caused only by normal strain, not shear strain.

b) When Poisson’s ratio approaches 0.5, the bulk modulus tends to
infinity and the material behaves like incompressible.

c) Von Mises failure criterion is not suitable for ductile material.

d) Mohr’s failure criterion is not suitable for brittle material having
different strength in tension and compression.