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as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps

Maps asas Numbers

Maps

Numbers

as as Numbers Maps
as as Numbers Maps Getting Started Getting Chapter Started with 33 with GIS GIS

Getting Started

Getting

Chapter

Started with

Chapter 33

with GIS

GIS

Chapter

Chapter 3:

3: Maps

Maps asas Numbers

Numbers

3.1

3.1 Representing

Representing Maps

Maps asas Numbers

Numbers

3.2 Structuring

3.2

Structuring Attributes

Attributes

3.3 Structuring

3.3

Structuring Maps

Maps

3.4

3.4 Why

Why Topology

Topology Matters

Matters

3.5

3.5 Formats

Formats for

for GIS

GIS Data

Data

3.6

3.6 Exchanging

Exchanging Data

Data

3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring
3.1 Representing Maps as as Numbers 3.2 Structuring 3.2 Structuring Attributes Attributes 3.3 Structuring 3.3 Structuring

Maps asas Numbers

Maps

Numbers

GIS

GIS requires

requires that

that both

both data

data and

and maps

maps bebe

represented asas numbers.

represented

numbers.

The

The GIS

GIS places

places data

data into

into the

the computer’s

computer’s

memory inin aa physical

memory

physical data

data structure

structure (i.e.

(i.e. files

files

and directories).

and

directories).

Files

Files can

can bebe written

written inin binary

binary or

or asas ASCII

ASCII text.

text.

Binary

Binary isis faster

faster toto read

read and

and smaller,

smaller, ASCII

ASCII

can bebe read

can

read byby humans

humans and

and edited

edited but

but uses

uses

more space.

more

space.

and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as
and directories). and directories). ■ Files can be be written in in binary or as as

The Data

The

Data Model

Model

AA logical

logical data

data model

model isis how

how data

data are

are

organized for

organized

for use

use byby the

the GIS.

GIS.

GISs

GISs have

have traditionally

traditionally used

used either

either

raster

raster or

or vector

vector for

for maps.

maps.

The Data The Data Model Model ■ AA logical data model isis how data are for

Rasters and

Rasters

and vectors

vectors can

can bebe

flat files

flat

files …… ifif they

they are

are simple

simple

and Rasters vectors can bebe files flat …… ifif they are simple

Beethoven isis vector

Beethoven

vector …… Mozart

Mozart isis raster!

raster!

isis vector Beethoven …… Mozart isis raster!

Key Elements

Key

Elements of

of Raster

Raster Data

Data

Square

Square cells

cells forming

forming aa grid

grid

Cell

Cell size

size determines

determines the

the resolution

resolution of

of the

the data

data

The Grid

The

typically

Grid has

has anan extent,

extent, often

often rectangular

rectangular and

and

the region

region of

of

typically covers

interest

interest

covers areas

areas outside

outside the

Generally

Generally has

interest

interest

Each cell

has imperfect

imperfect fit

fit toto the

the feature

feature of

of

Each

cell can

can bebe owned

owned byby only

only one

one feature

feature type

type

Each

Each cell

hold the

hold

cell inin aa grid

the largest

grid must

value of

must bebe made

made large

large enough

enough toto

largest value

the grid

grid

of the

the attributes

attributes toto bebe

stored inin the

stored

Linking attributes

Linking

indexing

indexing

attributes toto cells

cells are

are simpler

simpler via

via

Key Elements Key Elements of of Raster Raster Data Data ■ Square cells forming aa grid

Key Elements

Key

Elements of

of Vector

Vector Data

Data

Composed

Composed of

of points

points (coordinates)

(coordinates)

Irregular

Irregular shapes

increasing the

increasing

than the

than

shapes can

can bebe drawn

drawn correctly

points but

correctly byby

but with

the number

number of

of points

with less

less

the number

number of

of raster

raster cells

cells -- accuracy

accuracy

Only the

efficient

Only

the feature

feature of

of interest

interest needs

needs toto bebe stored

stored ––

efficient storage

storage

Not good

Not

good inin representing

representing continuous

continuous variables

variables

such asas elevation

such

elevation

Linking the

Linking

and

the attributes

attributes are

are more

more complex

complex for

the lines

lines isis

for lines

lines

and polygons.

polygons. AA file

file toto identify

identify the

both aa file

needed For

needed

For aa polygon

and the

polygon both

the file

file toto identify

the lines

identify the

the

lines making

making

polygon and

polygon

that polygon

that

file toto identify

identify the

polygon isis needed

needed

Key Elements Key Elements of of Vector Vector Data Data ■ Composed Composed of of points

Features and

Features

and Maps

Maps

AA GIS

GIS map

map isis aa scaled-down

scaled-down digital

digital

representation of

representation

of point,

point, line,

line, area,

area, and

and

volume features.

volume

features.

While

While most

most GIS

GIS systems

systems can

can handle

handle

raster and

raster

and vector,

vector, only

only one

one isis used

used for

for

the internal

the

internal organization

organization of

of spatial

spatial data.

data.

and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization
and raster vector, only one is is used for the internal the internal organization organization

Attribute data

Attribute

data

Attribute

Attribute data

data are

are stored

stored logically

logically inin flat

flat files.

files.

AA flat

flat filefile isis aa matrix

matrix of

of numbers

numbers and

and values

values stored

stored inin

rows and

rows

and columns,

columns, like

like aa spreadsheet.

spreadsheet.

Both logical

Both

logical and

and physical

physical data

data models

models have

have evolved

evolved

over time.

over

time.

DBMSs

DBMSs use

use many

many different

different methods

methods toto store

store and

and

manage flat

manage

flat files

files inin physical

physical files.

files.

■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical
■ DBMSs use many different methods to to store and flat manage files in in physical

AA raster

raster data

data model

model uses

uses aa grid.

grid.

One

One grid

grid cell

cell isis one

one unit

unit or

or holds

holds one

one attribute.

attribute.

Every

Every cell

cell has

has aa value,

value, even

even ifif itit isis “missing.”

missing.

AA cell

cell can

can hold

hold aa number

number or

or anan index

index value

value standing

standing

for

for anan attribute.

attribute.

AA cell

cell has

has aa resolution,

resolution, given

given asas the

the cell

cell size

size inin

ground units.

ground

units.

AA raster data model uses aa grid. ■ One grid cell isis one unit or holds

Generic

Generic structure

structure for

for aa grid

grid

Generic structure for aa grid

The mixed

The

mixed pixel

pixel problem

problem

The mixed The mixed pixel pixel problem problem
The mixed The mixed pixel pixel problem problem

Grids

Grids and

and missing

missing data

data

Grids Grids and and missing missing data data
Grids Grids and and missing missing data data

Rasters

Rasters are

are faster ...

faster ...

Points

Points and

and lines

lines inin raster

raster format

format have

have toto move

move toto aa

cell

cell center.

center.

Lines

Lines can

can become

become fat.

fat. Areas

Areas may

may need

need separately

separately

coded edges.

coded

edges.

Each

Each cell

cell can

can bebe owned

owned byby only

only one

one feature.

feature.

AsAs data,

data, all

all cells

cells must

must bebe able

able toto hold

hold the

the maximum

maximum

cell value.

cell

value.

■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature. ■ As As data,
■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature. ■ As As data,

Rasters

Rasters are

are easy

easy toto understand,

understand, easy

easy toto read

read and

and

write, and

write,

and easy

easy toto draw

draw onon the

the screen.

screen.

■ Rasters are easy to to understand, easy to to read and and write, easy to
■ Rasters are easy to to understand, easy to to read and and write, easy to
■ Rasters are easy to to understand, easy to to read and and write, easy to
■ Rasters are easy to to understand, easy to to read and and write, easy to
coded edges. coded edges. ■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature.
coded edges. coded edges. ■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature.
coded edges. coded edges. ■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature.
coded edges. coded edges. ■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature.
coded edges. coded edges. ■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature.
coded edges. coded edges. ■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature.
coded edges. coded edges. ■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature.
coded edges. coded edges. ■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature.
coded edges. coded edges. ■ Each cell can be be owned by by only one feature.

RASTER

RASTER

AA grid

grid or

or raster

raster maps

maps directly

directly onto

onto aa programming

programming computer

computer

memory structure

memory

structure called

called anan array.

array.

Grids

Grids are

are poor

poor at

at representing

representing points,

points, lines

lines and

and areas,

areas, but

but good

good

at surfaces.

at

surfaces.

Grids

Grids are

are good

good only

only at

at very

very localized

localized topology,

topology, and

and weak

weak

otherwise.

otherwise.

Grids

Grids are

are aa natural

natural for

for scanned

scanned or

or remotely

remotely sensed

sensed data.

data.

Grids suffer

Grids

suffer from

from the

the mixed

mixed pixel

pixel problem.

problem.

Grids

Grids must

must often

often include

include redundant

redundant or

or missing

missing data.

data.

Grid

Grid compression

compression techniques

techniques used

used inin GIS

GIS are

are run-length

run-length

encoding and

encoding

and quad

quad trees.

trees.

Grids are a a natural for scanned or remotely sensed data. Grids suffer Grids suffer from
Grids are a a natural for scanned or remotely sensed data. Grids suffer Grids suffer from
Grids are a a natural for scanned or remotely sensed data. Grids suffer Grids suffer from
Grids are a a natural for scanned or remotely sensed data. Grids suffer Grids suffer from
Grids are a a natural for scanned or remotely sensed data. Grids suffer Grids suffer from
Grids are a a natural for scanned or remotely sensed data. Grids suffer Grids suffer from
Grids are a a natural for scanned or remotely sensed data. Grids suffer Grids suffer from
A A grid or raster maps directly onto a a programming computer structure memory called an
A A grid or raster maps directly onto a a programming computer structure memory called an
A A grid or raster maps directly onto a a programming computer structure memory called an
A A grid or raster maps directly onto a a programming computer structure memory called an
A A grid or raster maps directly onto a a programming computer structure memory called an
A A grid or raster maps directly onto a a programming computer structure memory called an
A A grid or raster maps directly onto a a programming computer structure memory called an
A A grid or raster maps directly onto a a programming computer structure memory called an

Saving Storage

Saving

Storage Space

Space

Run

Run Length

Length Encoding

Encoding

Quad

Quad Tree

Tree Structure

Structure

Saving Storage Saving Storage Space Space ■ Run Run Length Length Encoding Encoding ■ Quad Quad

The quad-tree

The

quad-tree structure

structure

The quad-tree The quad-tree structure structure

The Vector

The

Vector Model

Model

AA vector

vector data

data model

model uses

uses points

points stored

stored byby their

their real

real

(earth)

(earth) coordinates.

coordinates.

Lines

Lines and

and areas

areas are

are built

built from

from sequences

sequences of

of points

points inin

order.

order.

Lines

Lines have

have aa direction

direction toto the

the ordering

ordering of

of the

the points.

points.

Polygons

Polygons can

can bebe built

built from

from points

points or

or lines.

lines.

■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines.
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines.

Vectors

Vectors can

can store

store information

information about

about topology.

topology.

Vectors Vectors can can store store information information about about topology. topology.
Vectors Vectors can can store store information information about about topology. topology.
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store
■ Polygons can be be built from points or lines. Vectors Vectors can can store store

VECTOR

VECTOR

At first,

At

first, GISs

GISs used

used vector

vector data

data and

and cartographic

cartographic spaghetti

spaghetti structures.

structures.

Vector data

Vector

data evolved

evolved the

the arc/node

arc/node model

model inin the

the 1960s.

1960s.

InIn the

the arc/node

arc/node model,

model, anan area

area consist

consist of

of lines

lines and

and aa line

line consists

consists of

of

points.

points.

Points, lines,

Points,

lines, and

and areas

areas can

can each

each bebe stored

stored inin their

their own

own files,

files, with

with links

links

between them.

between

them.

The topological

The

topological vector

vector model

model uses

uses the

the line

line (arc)

(arc) asas aa basic

basic unit.

unit. Areas

Areas

(polygons)

(polygons) are

are built

built upup from

from arcs.

arcs.

The endpoint

The

endpoint of

of aa line

line (arc)

(arc) isis called

called aa node.

node. Arc

Arc junctions

junctions are

are only

only at

at

lines, Points, and areas can each be be stored in in their own files, with
lines, Points, and areas can each be be stored in in their own files, with

nodes.

nodes.

nodes. nodes.

Stored

Stored with

with the

the arc

arc isis the

the topology

topology (i.e.

(i.e. the

the connecting

connecting arcs

arcs and

and left

left and

and

right polygons).

right

polygons).

Stored with the arc is is the topology (i.e. the connecting arcs and left and right
Stored with the arc is is the topology (i.e. the connecting arcs and left and right
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic
At first, At first, GISs GISs used used vector vector data data and and cartographic cartographic

Vectors just

Vectors

just seemed

seemed more

more

correcter.

correcter.

TINTIN must

must bebe used

used toto represent

represent volumes.

volumes.

Vector

Vector can

can represent

represent point,

point, line,

line, and

and area

area features

features

very accurately.

very

accurately.

Vectors

Vectors are

are far

far more

more efficient

efficient than

than grids.

grids.

Vectors

Vectors work

work well

well with

with pen

pen and

and light-plotting

light-plotting devices

devices

and tablet

and

tablet digitizers.

digitizers.

Vectors

Vectors are

are not

not good

good at

at continuous

continuous coverages

coverages or

or

plotters that

plotters

that fill

fill areas.

areas.

and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at
and tablet and tablet digitizers. digitizers. ■ Vectors Vectors are are not not good good at

TOPOLOGY

TOPOLOGY

Topological

Topological data

data structures

structures dominate

dominate GIS

GIS software.

software.

Topology

Topology allows

allows automated

automated error

error detection

detection and

and

elimination.

elimination.

Rarely

Rarely are

are maps

maps topologically

topologically clean

clean when

when digitized

digitized or

or

imported.

imported.

AA GIS

GIS has

has toto bebe able

able toto build

build topology

topology from

from

unconnected

unconnected arcs.

arcs.

Nodes that

Nodes

Slivers

that are

are close

close together

together are

are snapped.

snapped.

Slivers due

eliminated.

eliminated.

due toto double

double digitizing

digitizing and

and overlay

overlay are

are

TOPOLOGY TOPOLOGY ■ Topological Topological data data structures structures dominate dominate GIS GIS software. software. ■

TOPOLOGY

TOPOLOGY

IsIs the

the branch

branch of

of Mathematics

Mathematics that

that deals

deals with

with

geometric properties

geometric

properties which

which remain

remain constant

constant

under certain

under

certain transformation

transformation such

such asas stretching

stretching

or bending.

or

bending.

Connections

Connections and

and relationships

relationships described

described

independent of

independent

of coordinates

coordinates which

which remains

remains fixed

fixed

Under

Under stretching/bending

stretching/bending Distance,

Distance, Angle

Angle

(shape),

(shape), Relative

Relative proximity

proximity changes

changes

Adjacencies,

Adjacencies, Crossings,

Crossings, types

types of

of spatial

spatial objects

objects

don’t change

don’t

change

Strictly

Strictly speaking,

speaking, Topological

Topological properties

properties are

are

those which

those

which remains

remains unchanged

unchanged

(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of
(shape), (shape), Relative Relative proximity proximity changes changes ■ Adjacencies, Adjacencies, Crossings, Crossings, types types of

WHY TOPOLOGY

WHY

TOPOLOGY

ItIt gives

gives the

the GIS

GIS the

the sense

sense of

of

recognition of

recognition

of spatial

spatial objects

objects similar

similar

toto the

the way

map and

and

way we

we see

see aa map

recognize connections/relationship

recognize

connections/relationship

WHY TOPOLOGY WHY TOPOLOGY ■ ItIt gives the GIS the sense of recognition of recognition of

TOPOLOGY inin GIS

TOPOLOGY

GIS

AA GIS

GIS database

database isis called

called Topological

computed and

Topological ifif the

and stored:

stored:

the following

following

relationships

relationships are

are computed

Connection of

Connection

of lines

lines at

at intersections

intersections

Ordered sets

definition)

definition)

Ordered

sets of

of lines

lines forming

forming each

each polygon

polygon boundary

boundary (area

(area

Adjacency relationship

Adjacency

relationship between

between Polygons

Polygons (contiguity)

(contiguity)

Topology isis established

Topology

computer

computer programs

programs that

connections connections

established from

from the

the data

data structure

the links

links and

structure byby

and their

their

that creates

creates the

IfIf aa GIS

GIS database

database lacks

lacks these

these connections

connections itit isis called

called

cartographic (Spaghetti)

cartographic

(Spaghetti)

These

These are

are less

less useful

useful for

for analysis

analysis but

but good

good enough

enough toto make

make

Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure

maps

maps

maps maps

These

These can

can bebe converted

converted byby computing

computing topological

topological

relationships

relationships

These These can can be be converted by by computing topological relationships relationships
These These can can be be converted by by computing topological relationships relationships
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure
Topology is is established Topology computer computer programs programs that connections connections from the data structure