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Robert Atkins was a big, fat liar

Low Carbs? High Carbs? - What we know about exercise and food

J. Timothy Lightfoot, PhD FACSM RCEP ES Professor and Chair Dept. of Kinesiology University of North Carolina Charlotte

Overview of talk      History of Low Carb Diets Does It Work & Why? Dangers of Low Carb Diets What our bodies use for fuel For More Information…. .

it would burn more fat  1992. 1972 . Col. thus.Atkins publishes updates. WD Quackhorn writes Letter on Corpulence advocating high protein/low carb regimen 1961 . now advocating high protein/low carb diet  Greatly reduced claims about eating fat .your body would use what you gave it.Robert Atkins publishes his first diet book and advocates high fat/high protein/low carb diet  Idea was simple .Undertaker William Banting Lt. if you gave it fat.Herman Taller publishes Calories Don’t Count espousing a high protein. low carb diet.History of Low Carb Diets  QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor are neede d to see this picture.   1864 . 1999 .

Jequier. Sci. not used for energy) (e. 8: 273276.Should It Work?  Thomas & coworkers (1992) showed that in both obese and lean subjects. E. Clin. 1993) . News in Physiol. J. Nutr. (Am. 55:934-942).g.  Numerous studies show that excess proteins in diet are excreted (i. increasing fat content of diet did not result in more fat being used for energy.e.

NEJM (5/22/03)  Foster. et. Hospital)     .8 lb loss Low fat = 4. 6 months Low carb = 12. 6 months Weight loss greater after 6 months/same after 12 60% dropped out before completion 132 obese individuals.Okay . Pennsylvania)    63 obese men & women. (Philly VA Med.Does It Work?   Most lay-individuals would say “Yes” Some science to support .2 lb loss 60% drop out rate  Samaha. (Univ. al. et al.

QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture . All suggested menus ≈ 1500-1700 kcals/day . Christopher Gardner. QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this p icture .Why does it work? QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. PhD Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture .

impaired cognitive function Increased fat causes insulin resistance  Lipotoxicity  QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor are neede d to see this picture. hyperlipidemia. constipation. osteoporosis. kidney stones. optic neuropathy.What are the dangers?  Ketosis  Dehydration.  You’re grumpy/cranky .

So what are we supposed to eat to lose & maintain weight?  A balanced diet  Institute of Medicine (2003)    20-35% fat 45-65% carbs 10-25% protein <30% fat 15% protein 55% carbs  American Heart Association (2001)     IMPORTANT: Eat less simple sugars/carbs. Eat complex carbs!!!! .

Your body’s use of substrate  Carbs are easy to burn/metabolize  Do not store excess as fat  Fats take longer to metabolize  Store excess in adipose tissue  Proteins take even longer to metabolize  Excrete what is not used .

40 mins   Low intensity exercise   10-12% from protein 50% from fat / 40% from carbs 10-12% from protein 54% from fat / 36% from carbs  Below 70% max . how much do we use?   It depends on intensity & duration of activity At rest   10-12% of our energy comes from protein 45% comes from fat / 45% comes from carbs Below 70% of max .So.100 mins   .

So. 2  High intensity exercise  At 80% of max    5-8% from protein 16% from fat 79% from carbs 0% from protein 0% from fat 100% from carbs  At 100% max    . how much do we use? Pt.

uncc. MR. Popular Diets: A Scientific Review.edu/jtlightf” Dean Ornish books Freedman. et al. 2001 9(Supp): 1S-40S National Weight Control Registry (http://www.lifespan. Obesity Research.For More Information      This presentation at “personal.org/services/bmed/wt_loss/nwcr/) Deal with qualified/educated professionals   RD that specializes in weight control Exercise professional with a degree and certification .

you are burning 50% fat/50% carbs (protein usage is fairly stable) No exercise burns 100% fat To burn fat. Slow Distance) Educate yourself . do LSD (Long.Final Conclusions       To be healthy you need a balanced diet that includes complex carbs Calories In/Calories Out In most situations.

Thanks and Questions? Functional Health Lab / Exercise Genomics Lab .