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Chapter Outline

Quantification of Data Univariate Analysis Subgroup Comparisons Bivariate Analysis Introduction to Multivariate Analysis Sociological Diagnostics Ethics and Quantitative Data Analysis Quick Quiz

Quantification of Data

Quantification Analysis – The numerical representation and manipulation of observations for the purpose of describing and explaining the phenomena that those observations reflect.

Age

Political Affiliation

1 2 3 4 5

= = = = =

1 2 3 4 5

**Democrat = 1 Republican = 2 Independent = 3
**

Region of Country

Sex

Male = 1 Female = 2

West = 1 Midwest = 2 South = 3 Northeast = 4

. 2. Generate codes from your data. Use well-developed coding scheme. Develop Code Categories 1.

. Codebook Construction Codebook – The document used in data processing and analysis that tells the location of different data items in a data file.

Primary guide in the coking processes Guide for locating variables . of the Codebook Purposes 1. 2. The codebook also identifies the locations of data items and the meaning of the codes used.

Figure 14.1 .

7. 2. 5.ATTEND Abbreviated Variable Name How often do you attend religious services? 0. Never Less than once a year About once or twice a year Several times a year About once a month 2-3 times a month Nearly every week Every week Several times a week Don’t know. No answer Definition of the Variable Numerical Label Variable Attributes . 1. 3. 4. 9. 6. 8.

Data Entry Excel SPSS .

and measures of dispersion). Example: The Gender number of men in a sample/population and the number of women in a sample/population. . for purposes of description (examples: frequency distribution. averages.Univariate Analysis Univariate Analysis – The analysis of a single variable.

. Distributions Frequency Distributions – A description of the number of times the various attributes of a variable are observed in a sample.

3 .Figure 14.

Figure 14.4 .

. mode). Central Tendency Average – An ambiguous term generally suggesting typical or normal – a central tendency (examples: mean. median.

Mean – an average computed by summing the values of several observations and dividing by the number of observations. .an average representing the most frequently observed value or attribute. Mode. Median – an average representing the value of the “middle” case in a rank-ordered set of observations.

94. . 75. 100. 61. 91. 88. 93. 88. Practice: The following list represents the scores on a mid-term exam. Determine the mode. 82. 88 Determine the mean. 71. Determine the median. 70.

Figure 14.5 .

such as an average. . Standard Deviation – A measure of dispersion around the mean.9 percent within three standard deviations. and 99. calculated so that approximately 68 percent of the cases will lie within plus or minus one standard deviation from the mean. Dispersion – The distribution of values around some central value. 95 percent within two.

6 .Figure 14.

Discrete Variable – A variable whose attributes are separate from one another. Continuous Variable – A variable whose attributes form a steady progression. such as gender or political affiliation. . such as age of income.

balanced with presenting data in a manageable form. . Detail versus Manageability Provide reader with fullest degree of detail.

Subgroup Comparisons Description of subsets of cases. subjects or respondents. “Collapsing” Response Categories Handling “Don’t Knows” Numerical Descriptions in Qualitative Research .

Bivariate Analysis Bivariate Analysis – The analysis of two variables simultaneously. . for the purpose of determine the empirical relationship between them.

2. Determine logical direction of relationship (independent variable and dependent variable). Percentage down versus percentage across. Constructing a Bivariate Table 1. .

7 Percentaging a Table .Figure 14.

Each gender subgrouping is described in terms of approval or disapproval of sexual equality. The cases are divided into men and women. Constructing and Reading Bivariate Tables Example: Gender and Attitude toward Sexual Equality 1. 3. 2. . Men and women are compared in terms of the percentages approving of sexual equality.

Contingency Table – A format for presenting the relationship among variables as percentage distributions. .

The attributes of each variable should be clearly indicated. Missing data should be indicated in the table. The base on which percentage are computed should be indicated. 4. . 3. 2. A table should have a heading or title that describes what is contained in the table. Guidelines for Presentation of Tables 1. 5. Original content should be clearly presented.

.Introduction to Multivariate Analysis Multivariate Analysis – The analysis of the simultaneous relationships among several variables.

Quick Quiz .

field research study . experimental analysis D. case-oriented analysis C. A. To conduct a quantitative analysis.1. researchers often must engage in a _____ after the data have been collected. coding process B.

researchers often must engage in a coding process after the data have been collected. .Answer: A. To conduct a quantitative analysis.

qualitative evaluations D. Which of the following describe the analysis of more than two variables? A.2. experimental designs B. multivariate analysis . quasi-experimental designs C.

Answer: D. Multivariate analyses describe the analysis of more than two variables. .

A. quantification . feminist research B. qualification C.3. The process of converting data to numerical format is called _____.

.ANSWER: C. The process of converting data to numerical format is called quantification.

You can generate codes from your data. both of the above D.4. B. none of the above . Which of the following are basic approaches to the coding process? A. C. You can begin with a well developed coding scheme.

. The following are basic approaches to the coding process: you can begin with a well developing coding scheme and/or you can generate codes from your data.ANSWER: C.

cross-case analysis B. constant comparative method D. A.5. monitoring study . codebook C. A _____ is a document that describes the locations of variables and lists the assignments of codes to the attributes composing those variables.

ANSWER: B. . A codebook is a document that describes the locations of variables and lists the assignments of codes to the attributes composing those variables.

mean C. frequency B.6. median D. The _____ is an average computed by summing the values of several observations and divided by the number of observations. A. mode .

The mean is an average computed by summing the values of several observations and divided by the number of observations. .ANSWER: B.

multivariate analysis B. univariate analysis D. both A and B . Which of the following are aimed at explanation? A.7. bivariate analysis C.

ANSWER: D. Multivariate analysis and bivariate analysis are aimed at explanation. .

B. predicting behavior. C. reacting to issues. diagnosing social problems. all of the above .8. D. The multivariate techniques can serve as power tools for A.

The multivariate techniques can serve as powerful tools for diagnosing social problems. .ANSWER: B.

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