is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations.  Nursing is an art and a science by which people are assisted in learning to care for themselves whenever possible and cared for by others when they are unable to meet their own needs.

        1. 6. 4. 5. Relate the social forces of nursing’s evolution to the current status of . 3. Identify major historical and social events that have shaped current nursing practice. Define nursing as an art and a science. Discuss the contributions of early leaders in American nursing. 2. Discuss the impact of selected landmark reports on nursing education and practice. Describe Florence Nightingale’s impact on current nursing practice.

supply and demand. unity within the profession. the nurse is better able to understand such issues as autonomy (being self-directed). By studying nursing history. . salary. To understand the present status of nursing. and current practice. it is necessary to have a base of historical knowledge about the profession. education.

learning from historical role models. situations. nurses can enhance their abilities to create positive change in the present and set a course for the future. is a study of the past that includes events. and individuals.  By .

nurses will  indeed be a vital force in the new millennium. Ignoring nursing’s history can be detrimental to the future of the profession. Learning from the past is the major reason for studying history. .  By applying the lessons gained from a historical review.


Babylonia and Assyria 800–600 BC. deaconesses 711.founded first hospital 390–407.Field hospital with nursing. Oxford and Cambridge 1522 -Military nursing orders 1600–1752.Primitive societies 2000 BC .             4000 BC .Early Christianity.source of modern medical science 460 BC. Spain (Moslems) 1440.Hippocrates 3 BC Ireland.Ambulatory clinics. Spain 1100.pre-Christian nursing AD 390 Fabiola.Health religions of India 700 BC Greece.Deterioration of hospitals and nursing .First Chairs of Medicine.

Brooklyn Maternity.New York State Training School for Nurses. Thomas’ Hospital. Mount Holyoke 1841 Founded:. London 1861–1865. St. New York 1854–1856.Nursing Sisters of the Holy Cross 1848-Women’s Rights Convention. Seneca Falls. Boston 1871. Brooklyn.            1633 Founded-: Daughters of Charity 1820.Civil War.Nightingale’s Notes on Nursing published in England 1860-First Nightingale School of Nursing.First American college for women.Crimean War 1859.Charter granted to the New England Hospital for Women. New York .Florence Nightingale born 1826 -Kaiserwerth deaconesses reestablished 1837. United States 1863.

Linda Richards 1873. and General 1881.First Nurses’ Settlement House.Founded: International Council of Women (ICW) Founded: National Council of Women (NCW) 1893. Connecticut. founded by Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster Founded: first American Nursing Society.       1872.New England Hospital for Women: one year program for nurses .First three Nightingale schools in United States: Bellevue (New York City).Founded: American Red Cross 1882.America’s first trained nurse.Founded: American Association of University Women 1888. American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses (Superintendents’ Society) ( . New York City.

Columbia University 1900 American Journal of Nursing (AJN) 1901–1912 Founded: American Federation of Nurses (Federation) Federation Joins NCW and ICW 1903 New York: efforts failed to pass a nurse licensing law North Carolina: passes first state nurse registration law Founded: Army Nurse Corps .          1896 Founded: National Association of Colored Women 1896–1911 Founded: Nurses’ Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada (Associated Alumnae) 1899 Founded: International Council of Nurses (ICN) First postgraduate courses for nurses at Teachers College.

1905.Flexner report  1911.Founded: first 3-year diploma school in a university setting at University of Minnesota  1910. formerly the Associated Alumnae  .Federation withdraws from NCW and joins ICN  1908 -National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN)  Founded: Navy Nurse Corps  1909.Founded: American Nurses Association (ANA).

1912. formerly the Superintendents’ Society  ANA represents American nurses at ICN  Nutting Report: Educational Status of Nursing  Developments in preventive medicine  Founded: Town and Country Rural Nursing Service  .Founded: National Organization of Public Health Nursing (NOPHN)  Founded: National League of Nursing Education (NLN).

Pacific Northwest  Founded: Bureaus of Medical Services  Hospitals offered a prepaid plan  Baylor Plan (prototype of Blue Cross)  Goldmark report  .1913 Founded: National Women’s Party  1916 Founded: National Association of Deans of Women  1920 Founded: National League for Women Voters  Congress passes the federal suffrage amendment  1920s Depression: social programs and health insurance  First prepaid medical plan.

1921 Women earn right to vote  1922 Studies of institutional nursing  1923 Studies of nursing education  Founded: Yale University School of Nursing  1926 Burgess report  1933 American Hospital Association endorses Blue Cross  1938 American Medical Association endorses Blue Shield  Economic Security Program for Nurses  1940 Cost studies of nursing education and service  1943 Founded: Federal Cadet Nurse Corps  .

000 Nurses Tell Their Stories  1960s Created: Medicare and Medicaid  1961 Surgeon General’s Consultant Group  1964 Nurse Training Act  1965 First nurse practitioner program.1948 Brown report: Future of Nursing  1953 U.S. pediatric  ANA position paper on entry into practice  . Public Health Services Studies in Nursing Education  1955 Practical Nursing (Title III) Health Amendment Act  1956 Hughes study: 20.

Surgeon General Report Healthy People  1980 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act  1982 Budget cut to Health Maintenance Organization Act  Tax Equity Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA)  .1966 Educational opportunity grants for nurses  1970 Secretary’s commission to study extended roles for nurses  1973 Health Maintenance Organization Act  1977 Rural Health Clinic Service Act  National Commission for Manpower Policy Study  1979 U.S.

now known as the Agency for Healthcare Research and  Quality.S.S. established 12 evidence-based practice centers  2000 U. Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2010  .1983 Institute of Medicine Committee on Nursing and Nursing Education study  1987 Secretary’s Commission on Nursing  1990s Health care reform  1991 U. Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2000  1997 Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.

Nightingale received a thorough education including Greek. and philosophy. . Unlike other young women of her era. She had always been interested in relieving suffering and caring for the sick. mathematics. Latin. She grew up in a wealthy upper-class family in England during the mid-1800s. history. Florence Nightingale is considered the founder of modern nursing.

. She established the Nightingale Training School of Nurses at St. This was the first school for nurses that provided both theory-based knowledge and clinical skill building. Thomas’ Hospital in London.

1969) .         • A holistic framework inclusive of illness and health • The need for a theoretical basis for nursing practice • A liberal education as a foundation for nursing practice • The importance of creating an environment that promotes healing • The need for a body of nursing knowledge that was distinct from medical knowledge (Nightingale.

Nightingale introduced many other concepts that.  . and  (3) maintaining confidentiality.  She also advocated that nurses provide clean surroundings with fresh air and light to improve the quality of care. though unique in her time. She advocated:  (1) having a systematic method of assessing Clients  (2) individualizing care on the basis of the client’s needs and preferences. are still used today.


             Ventilation and Warming Health of Houses Petty Management Noise Variety Taking Food What Food? Bed and Bedding Light Cleanliness of Rooms And Walls Personal Cleanliness Chattering Hopes And Advices Observation of the Sick .


 4.Efficient drainage.  .  2.There are five essential points in securing the health of houses:–  1.Pure air.Cleanliness.  3.  Without these.Light.  5.Pure water. no house can be healthy. And it will be unhealthy just in proportion as they are deficient.

shall be done when you are not there. or in other words. . in petty management. by not knowing how to manage that what you do when you are there.

is that which hurts a patient. or noise that creates an expectation in the mind. the effect upon the organ of the ear itself. . Unnecessary noise. which appears to affect the sick. It is rarely the loudness of the noise.

. Variety of form and brilliancy of colour in the objects presented to patients are actual means of recovery.

 .  Nurse must have some rule of thought about her patient's diet.  Life often hangs upon minutes in taking food  Patients starved to death in chronic cases.  Food never to be left by the patient's side.Want of attention to hours of taking food.  Patient had better not see more food than his own.

. Nurse must have some rule of thought about her patient's diet.

Feverishness a symptom of bedding.  Bed not to be too high  .  Air your dirty sheets.  Iron spring bedsteads the best. not only your clean ones.  Uncleanliness of ordinary bedding.  Bed not to be too wide.

view. Light essential to both health and recovery.  Aspect. and sunlight matters of first importance to the sick.  Without sunlight. we degenerate body and mind. .

.  Best kind of wall for a house. Cleanliness of carpets and furniture.

 Ventilation and skincleanliness equally essential. .

 Absurd consolations put forth for the benefit of the sick.  Means of giving pleasure to the sick. . Advising the sick.  Patient does not want to talk of himself.

 The most important practical lesson that can be given to nurses is to teach them what to observe–how to observe–what symptoms indicate improvement–what the reverse–which are of importance–which are of none–which are the evidence of neglect– and of what kind of neglect. .

 Nevertheless let no one think that because sanitary nursing is the subject of these notes. therefore. what may be called the handicraft of nursing is to be undervalued  .The whole of the preceding remarks apply even more to children and to puerperal woman than to patients in general. They also apply to the nursing of surgical. quite as much as to that of medical cases.

her responsibility is to organize the nursing service.“ Lady with the Lamp” -Nursing’s first scientist theorist for her work -Notes on Nursing: What it is.1. -establish the American Red Cross . Nightingale (1820-1910). and what it is not 2. Barton (1821.1912).

Lilian wald (1867-1940).3. Linda Richards (1841-1930). 6. 4. 5. Mary mahoney (1845-1926)-was the first american professional nurse. Lavinia Dock (1858-1956) –was active in the protest movement for women’s rights that resulted in the US Constitution amendment allowing women to vote in 1920.Founder of Public health nursing. .America’s first trained nurse.

1966)had a lasting impact on women’s health care.established the Frontier nursing Service. Margaret Higgins Sanger (1879. .7. 8. Breckinridge (1881-1965).

 CONSUMER. PATIENT.   .an individual or group of people or a community that uses a service or commodity.a person who is waiting for an undergoing treatment and care. CLIENT-is a person who engages the advise or services of another who is qualified to provide this service.


Caregiver  Communicator  Teacher  Client advocate  Counselor  Change agent  Leader  Manager  Case manager  Research consumer  .

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