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Flow to Wells

•

For scientific exploration

–

Knowledge of aquifer characteristics

•

K, S, T, …

•

For resource exploitation

–

Effective, responsible aquifer pumping

•

Maximum sustainable yield

•

Extent of cone of depression

•

Connectedness

•

Others…

Basic Assumptions in Chapter 5

1. aquifer is bounded on the bottom by a confining layer

2. All geologic formations are horizontal and have infinite horizontal extent

3. The potentiometric surface if the aquifer is horizontal prior to the start of

pumping

4. The potentiometric surface of the aquifer is not changing with time prior to

the start of pumping

5. All changes in the position of the potentiometric surface are due to the

effect of the pumping well alone

6. The aquifer is homogeneous and isotropic

7. All flow is radial toward the well

8. Groundwater flow is horizontal

9. Darcy’s law is valid

10. Groundwater has a constant density and viscosity

11. The pumping well and the observational well are fully penetrating; that is,

they are screened over the entire thickness of the aquifer.

12. The pumping well has an infinitesimal diameter and is 100% efficient

Fig 5.2

Compare with next slide

Fetter, Applied Hydrology, 2001

Heath, Ground-Water Hydrology, 1983

Bouwer’s Fig. 4.1

Bouwer, Groundwater Hydrology, 1978

Why does potentiometric surface steepen as it approaches the pumping well? If we

assume steady-state, the flux towards the well at any given radius must be equal. Since

radial flow results in ever decreasing cross-sectional area, the gradient must increase to

maintain the same flux.

A new governing equation

• Predicting drawdown and response potentiometric surfaces involve

predicting the spatial and temporal distribution of h, for which we have

equations.

• Recall the 3d governing equation

• Radial symmetry, resulting from assumptions 6, 2 and 3 allows reduction of

the confined, three-dimensional radial flow into a 2-dimensional problem:

S

h h h h

K K K S

x x y y z z t

¸ _ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

¸ _ ¸ _

+ + ·

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

¸ , ¸ ,

¸ ,

2 2

2 2

S

S h h h

x y K t

∂ ∂ ∂

+ ·

∂ ∂ ∂

New Governing Equation

•

When discussion aquifer productivity we

often use the term transmissivity (T) which

is defined as:

•

so

T Kb ·

2 2

2 2

h h S h

x y T t

∂ ∂ ∂

+ ·

∂ ∂ ∂

New Governing Equation

•

Conversion to radial coordinates:

2 2

r x y · +

2 2

2 2

h h S h

x y T t

∂ ∂ ∂

+ ·

∂ ∂ ∂

2

2

1 h h S h

r r r T t

∂ ∂ ∂

+ ·

∂ ∂ ∂

A New Governing Equation

•

With recharge through confining layer…

•

In the next section we will evaluate above

equation to determine drawdown and aquifer

characteristic for

–

Steady-state confined

– Steady-state unconfined

– Transient confined

– Transient unconfined

t

h

T

S

t

w

r

h

r r

h

∂

∂

· +

∂

∂

+

∂

∂ 1

2

2

Steady state (equilibrium) vs

Transient (non-equilibrium)

Confined Aquifer

Original potentiometric

Q

Observation wells

b

t

1

t

2

t

inf

t

3

-A cone of depression grows until equilibrium is reach. While cone is

growing we use solutions for transient case. When equilibrium is reached

we use steady-state solutions.

Topic Organization

• Fetter

•

2 problems

–

Determining drawdown

•

Transient confined

• Transient unconfined

– Determining aquifer properties

(K,S)

• Steady-state confined

• Steady-state unconfined

• Transient confined

• Transient unconfined

• Me

• 2 conditions

–

Steady-State

•

Confined drawdown and

aquifer properties

•

Unconfined drawdown and

aquifer properties

– Transient

• Confined drawdown and

aquifer properties

• Unconfined drawdown and

aquifer properties

Steady State Flow to Wells

• When a well is pumped, drawdown and creation of a cone of

depression develops. Eventually, steady state is achieved and the

cone is stable

– Pumping rate and aquifer properties determine the shape of the

cone

Derivation of the Thiem equation (confined)

•

Equation 5.44 in your text

•

Steady state flow to a well in a confined

aquifer

–

What is the extent of the cone of depression?

–

What is the drawdown at any distance h?

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

1

2

1 2

ln

) ( 2

r

r

h h T

Q

π

Thiem Confined

Confined Aquifer

r1

h1

r2

h2

Original potentiometric

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

1

2

1 2

ln

) ( 2

r

r

h h T

Q

π

Q

Observation wells

b

Thiem Confined

•

See example page 168

•

In addition, estimate the extent of the cone

of depression…

Derivation of the Thiem

equation (unconfined)

•

Equation 5.49 in your text

•

Steady state radial flow to a well in an

unconfined aquifer

≈

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

1

2

2

1

2

2

ln

) (

r

r

h h K

Q

π

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

1

2

1 2

ln

) ( 2

r

r

h h T

Q

ave

π

The extent of the zone

of influence for an

unconfined aquifer is

small compared to that

of a confined aquifer…

Heath, Basic Ground-Water Hydrology, 1983

Thiem UnConfined

Bouwer’s 4.2

Bouwer, Groundwater Hydrology, 1978

Heath, Basic Ground-Water Hydrology, 1983

Example

•

A 12” well in an unconfined aquifer has been

pumped at 350 gpm until equilibrium has been

achieved. The well penetrates 108 ft below the

original water table. Two observation wells locat

57 and 148 ft from the pumped well show

drawdowns of 12 and 7.4 ft respectively

–

A. Estimate K

–

B. Estimate T

–

C. What is the drawdown at the pumped well?

–

D. How large is the cone of depression?

Transient (unsteady) flow to a

well in a confined aquifer

Theis (1935) equation assumptions:

•

Fully confined aquifer (top and bottom)

•

No recharge source

•

The aquifer is compressible

•

Water released from storage is

instantaneously discharged with a drop in

head

•

Well is pumped at a constant rate

Remember your friend storativity (S)?

(Be mindful of the differences between confined and unconfined values)

S=ρgb(α +nβ)

Heath, Basic Ground-Water Hydrology, 1983

Derivation of the Theis solution

•

ANALYTICAL solution to Eq 5.2 subject to

the following boundary and initial

conditions (Eq. 5.12):

–

h(r,0) = ho for all r (constant piezometric

surface at t = 0)

–

h(∞,t) = ho for all t (no drawdown at infinite

distance from the well)

–

Constant pumping rate at the well: Q = 2πrT

dh/dr

Theis Solution

da

a

e

T

Q

h h

u

a

o

∫

∞

−

· −

π 4

) (

4

u W

T

Q

h h

o

π

· −

Tt

S r

u

4

2

·

) ( ...

! 4 4 ! 3 3 ! 2 2

ln 5772 . 0

4 3 2

u W

u u u

u u da

a

e

u

a

·

1

]

1

¸

+

⋅

−

⋅

+

⋅

− + − − ·

∫

∞

−

Domenico and Schwartz, Physical and Chemical Hydrology, 1998

Use of the Theis solution

•

If Q is constant and S and T are known,

can solve for drawdown distribution in

time: h

o

-h(r,t)

•

Alternatively, if the drawdown as a

function of time is known for one or more

observation wells, given a constant Q at

the well, then one can solve for T and S

using a graphical procedure using a Theis

type curve.

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