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HISTORY OF ISLAM

Presentation By Group 2 MAPSS Bicol University 21 July 2012

SEQUENCE OF PRESENTATION
Definition of Islam Five Pillars of Islam Prophet Mohammad and the Rise of Islam The Caliphate Denominations Criticism of Islam Islam at Present

DEFINITION OF ISLAM
Monotheistic Religion Source is Quran Root word is Salam Adherent of Islam is called Muslim

FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM


Creed or Testimony (Shahadah) Prayers (Salat) Fasting (Saum) Purifying Tax (Zakat) Pilgrimage (Hajj)

PROPHET MOHAMMAD AND THE RISE OF ISLAM

Mohammad
Last prophet of Islam Role Model The messenger

PROPHET MOHAMMAD AND THE RISE OF ISLAM


TIME LINE IN THE LIFE OF MOHAMMAD
570 AD 576 AD 595 AD Muhammad age 25 marries 40 years old Khadija Claims to be visited by Archangel Gabriel. Muhammad preaches in private for 3 years Muhammad begins to preach in public Khadija and Abu Talib die. Muhammad and Muslims threatened by Mecca Muhammad meets Arab tribes from Medina at the Hajj who request his help (Aws and Khazraj) Muslim flee Mecca for Medina. Year 1 of the Muslim Calendar. (Hijra). September 622 Muhammad arrives in Medina. He becomes the leader in Mdedina. Most of the Aws and Khazraj converted to Islam. The three jewish tribes in Medina resist conversion. Muhammad begins raiding caravans headed toward Mecca Battle of Badr 1000 Meccans are defeated by 300 Muslims in a pitched battle. Jewish tribe Banu Qaynuqa expelled from Medina. Meccan raise larger Army and defeat Muslims at Mt. Uhud. Meccans fail to follow up on attack. 2nd Jewish Tribe BanuNadir are expelled from Medina. Meccans attack Medina after one month they fail to take the city and withdraw. 3rd Jewish tribe Banu Qurayza was accused of supporting Mecca. Men are killed, women and children enslaved. Arab cities surrounding Medina and Mecca begin to submit to MHD Sets out from Medina with warriors to perform pilgrimage at Mecca. Meccans refuse to allow MHD and Muslims entry. Truce of ( 10-year treaty) of al- Hudaybiya gave Muslims the right to make pilgrimage to Mecca. City would be evacuated for 3 days as Muslim perform pilgrimage MHD claims Mecca broke the truce sends 10,000 warriors against Mecca. The city surrenders to MHD. Kaba is cleared of 360 Idols, People convert to Islam. MHD negotiates with surrounding Arab cities. They convert to Islam. 630 AD MHD leads 30,000 warriors to Tabuk in the North near Aqaba. They surrender to MHD. Last expedition before his death. March 632 AD Mohammed makes final pilgrimage to Mecca June 632 AD MHD dies after short illness. Birth of Muhammad 576 AD Amina mother of Muhammad dies. Uncle Abu Talib raises Muhammad.

610 AD 613 AD 618 AD 620 AD 622 AD

623 AD 624 Mar

625 AD
627 AD

628 AD

629 AD 630 Jan 630 AD 630 AD

632 AD 632 AD

THE CALIPHATE
Aristocratic-constitutional republic First system of Government of Islam Means Dominion of a Caliph Caliph means Successor

THE CALIPHATE
List of Caliphs After the death of Mohammad Name Abu Bakr Designation First Caliph Date ofDeath 634 AD

Umar Uthman
Ali Hasan

Second Caliph Third Caliph


Fourth Caliph Fifth Caliph (Son of Ali)

644 AD 656 AD
661 AD Unknown

LIST OF CALIPHS AFTER THE FIRST FIVE CALIPH


Caliphates
The Rashidan Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba in Islamic Spain The Abbasid Caliphate The Fatimid Caliphate

Date of Reign
(632661) (661750) (756-929-1031) Successor Caliphate of the Rashidun

(7501258) (9101171)

Successor Caliphate

of

the

Umayyad

The Mamluk Caliphate (12501517) (Bahri dynasty then preceded by Burji dynasty) The Ottoman Caliphate (12991923)

DENOMINATIONS
Sunni Shia Sufism

CRITICISMS OF ISLAM
Came from Christians Morality of the life of Mohammad Authenticity of Quran Human Rights in Modern Islamis Nations Treatment of Women Islamic Law and Practice

ISLAM AT PRESENT
1.57 Bn people are Muslims (23%) Sunni (75-90%) Shia (10-20) 50 Countries are Muslim Majority 683 Million Live in Asia (62%)

ISLAM AT PRESENT
ARAB SPRINGS MOST AFFECTED COUNTRIES

Tunisia Egypt Libya Yemen Syria

END OF PRESENTATION
THANK YOU AND GOOD DAY

HISTORY OF ISLAM
Presentation By Group 2 MAPSS Bicol University 21 July 2012