Microbiology I And II: Prokaryotes, Viruses, and Protistans


Did Alexander the Great Die from West Nile Virus?

Historical Review Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis John S. Marr* and Charles H. Calisher†

 Table. Medical history and physical examination of Alexander the Great          

Patient characteristics Onset of final illness May 29, 323 BC Death June 10, 323 BC Escalating fever associated with chills Excessive thirst, diaphoresis Acute abdominal pain Single episode of back pain at onset of fever Increased weakness leading to prostration with intermittent periods of energy Delirium Aphonia Terminal flaccid paralysis

Single-celled organisms that are too small to be seen

without a microscope
Bacteria are the smallest living organisms Viruses are smaller but are not alive

The Prokaryotes

Only two groups Archaebacteria and Eubacteria Arose before the eukaryotes

Prokaryotic Characteristics

No membrane-bound nucleus Single chromosome Cell wall in most species Prokaryotic fission Metabolic diversity

Prokaryotic Body Plan


bacterial flagellum


plasma capsule cell wall membrane

ribosomes in cytoplasm

Bacterial Shapes





Methanogens Extreme halophiles Extreme thermophiles

Archaebacteria Habitats

Includes most familiar bacteria Have fatty acids in plasma membrane Most have cell wall; always includes peptidoglycan Classification based largely on metabolism

Metabolic Diversity

Photoautotrophs Chemoautotrophs Chemoheterotrophs

Bacterial Genes
Bacteria have a single chromosome

Circular molecule of DNA

Many bacteria also have plasmids
 

Self-replicating circle of DNA that has a few genes Can be passed from one cell to another

Prokaryotic Fission

Video: E. coli Reproduction

nicked plasmid in donor cell

conjugation tube to recipient cell


CDC Warning CRE

http://www.cdc.gov/features/vitalsigns/hai/cr “Some germs are beating even our strongest

antibiotics. Rapid action by clinicians and healthcare leaders is needed to stop the rise of lethal CRE infections.”

The Normal Flora
The normal flora of humans is exceedingly complex

and consists of more than 200 species of bacteria. The mixture of organisms regularly found at any anatomical site is referred to as the normal flora.

A Friendly Bacteria: E. coli
Commonly inhabits the intestines of

vertebrates E. coli does not normally infect us Many benefits: vitamin K and the B complex are produced by E. coli prevent colonization by pathogens stimulate the production of cross-reactive antibodies

E. coli strain O157:H7. A Dangerous Form
This mutant can be transmitted in food or water Think “White Water” and the “Jack in the Box”

hamburger incidents Both made national news when many people became ill and some died.

Sewage Pollution Indicator
E. coli in streams, drinking water and surface

waters of all kinds may indicate a problem with sewage and or farm runoff.

Testing for unusual levels of these organisms is

routinely done by public health officials

Parks, swimming pools, restaurants etc may be

closed if E. coli is detected

E. coli Photos

EM cells

Culture plate

Park settles last E. coli suit

Patricia Guthrie - Staff Friday, December 15, 2000 The last of a dozen lawsuits, filed by families of children sickened in a 1998 E. coli outbreak tied to Cobb County's White Water park, has been settled out of court for an undisclosed sum, attorneys said Thursday. The family of Jordan Faith Shook of Cartersville, whose symptoms were among the most severe of the 26 children sickened by E. coli O157:H7, agreed to an out-of-court settlement. The settlement was sealed in court records and will not be disclosed, said Bill Marler, attorney for James and Judy Shook, Jordan's parents……


Necrotizing fasciitis: "The flesh-eating bacteria"
Streptococcus pyogenes strains (as well as others) rarely cause “necrotizing fasciitis” These infections are extremely serious Sometimes necessitate amputation or result in severe disfigurement.

Photomicrograph of Streptococcus pyogenes


Unexpected Consequences
One weekend in June of 1998 while Cassie Moore

was camping with her three children, she obtained a minor cut on her finger, which she bandaged properly. She also injured the left side of her body participating in sports. Not thinking much of either, she bandaged the cut, and went to bed (Moore, 1999).


The next two slides are very graphic. They show the

results of necrotizing fasciitis!!
You don’t have to look at them if you are squeamish!

Severe Case



EPA finds contaminated drinking water on planes
WASHINGTON (Reuters) -- A surprising

number of drinking water systems on domestic and foreign commercial aircraft tested this summer by the government did not meet federal standards because they were contaminated with potentially harmful bacteria, regulators said Monday. (Tuesday, September 21, 2004 Posted: 10:46 AM EDT (1446 GMT) )

Microbes in the News

Recently in Georgia…More Flesh Eating Bacteria

http://video.search.yahoo.com/search/video;_ylt=A0oG You can also check this out:

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/01/13/14517905  (5/16/2012) (5/24/2012)

Aeromonas Infections

Aeromonas is a common aquatic potential deadly

infectious bacteria. Victims usually are infected in deep lacerations that are exposed to fresh water, either standing or running. Warning: This video has a series of graphic images which some my find disturbing. http://video.search.yahoo.com/video/play?fr=mymyy&ei=UTF8&c=2&p=aeromonas+infections&vid=44d6d34134 d23d40eefb5c25da19a8b4&dt=1336680021&l=25&t url=http%3A%2F%2Fts3.mm.bing.net%2Fvideos

E. coli outbreak alarms Germany as young women sicken (BBC 25 May 2011)
 “Germany is alarmed at the scale of an E. coli food

poisoning outbreak which is thought to have killed three people and may have infected hundreds more.” Salads suspected… health conscious women….

E. coli cucumber scare: Spain angry at German claims BBC 31 May 2011
“Spain has expressed anger at links being made

between Spanish cucumbers and a deadly E. coli outbreak.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-13605910

Reaction to the cucumber crisis Country Germany Action Consumers told not to eat cucumbers, lettuces and raw tomatoes. 1,150 cases of E.coli confirmed; 14 deaths One death and 36 suspected E. coli infections, linked to travel in northern Germany. Top European cucumber producer - threatens to seek compensation from the European Union for lost vegetables sales Ban on all imports of cucumbers, tomatoes and fresh salad from Spain and Germany pending further notice Some Spanish-grown cucumbers removed from sale Some Spanish-grown cucumbers removed from sale Ban on sale of cucumbers, tomatoes and aubergines imported via Germany Reported to have banned cucumber imports from Spain Halted all cucumber shipments to Germany Testing cucumbers for




Czech Republic




Netherlands Denmark

Egyptian Fenugreek Seeds Source of EU Outbreak?
By Mary Rothschild | June 29, 2011 Fenugreek

sprouts are “the most likely connection” between the outbreaks of E. coli O104:H4 in France and Germany, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (EC reported Wednesday http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2011/06/egyptian-fen

The Source: Suspected Egyptian Sprout Seeds Still on Sale
“Egyptian sprout seeds suspected to be

contaminated with the deadly E.coli bacteria which has caused a rampaging outbreak in Europe are still believed to be on sale. The EU has belatedly announced a blanket ban on more imports.“ 4000 ill; 51 dead – July 6, 2011 Posted in: Health News
 http://www.ygoy.com/2011/07/06/suspected-egyptian-


Bacteria-rich hailstones add to 'bioprecipitation' idea (BBC 25 May 2011)
 “A study of hailstones has found large numbers of bacteria

at their cores.”
 The find lends credence to the "bio-precipitation" idea, which suggests

that bacteria are actively involved in stimulating precipitation.  The bacteria have protein coatings that cause water to freeze at relatively warm temperatures.

Bacteria 'linked' to Parkinson's disease (BBC 22 May 2011)
 “The bacteria responsible for stomach ulcers have been

linked to Parkinson's disease, according to researchers in the US.”
like symptoms.…Parkinson's disease affects the brain and results in slow
movements and a tremor”.

 “Mice infected with Helicobacter pylori went onto develop Parkinson's

 The researchers believe the bacteria are producing chemicals which are

toxic to the brain.

“Dr. Testerman said this new chemical was almost identical to one found in seeds from the cycad plant, which had been shown to trigger a Parkinson's-like disease among people in Guam.”

Preventing Septis




Characteristics of Salmonella

Gram negative Rod shaped (bacillus) Non-spore forming Motile (many flagella) Enterobacteria (Live in the intestines of many

animals) Chemoorganotrophs Salmonella infections are zoonotic


Gram Staining
 Laboratory staining protocol developed to help identify bacteria  Two stains are used on heat-fixed (death by heat) smear of a bacterial


 Stain #1 is crystal violet which stains the bacterial cells purple  Stain #2 is usually safrarin which stains the bacterial cells red or pink  Gram + bacteria appear purple under microscope because they retain

the crystal violet dye in their cell walls

 Gram- bacteria appear red or pink under the microscope because they

do not retain the blue dye, but do retain the pink dye

 Does not work on all types of bacteria

Gram Staining Video
BEST Gram Staining Video Ever!!! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CyyY8h1doJk Second Best


Under the Microscope

A Gram stain of mixed Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive cocci) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacilli)


Salmonella and Disease
“The Salmonella family includes over 2,300 serotypes of

bacteria which are one-celled organisms too small to be seen without a microscope. Two types, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium are the most common in the United States and account for half of all human infections. Strains that cause no symptoms in animals can make people sick, and vice versa. If present in food, it does not usually affect the taste, smell, or appearance of the food. The bacteria live in the intestinal tracts of infected animals and humans.”

 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/salmonella_questions_&_answers/in

 “Salmonellosis is an infection with bacteria called Salmonella.

Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most persons recover without treatment. However, in some persons, the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized. In these patients, the Salmonella infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream, and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics. The elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems are more likely to have a severe illness.”

 http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/salmonel

“About 142,000 (reported) Americans are

infected each year with Salmonella enteritidis from chicken eggs, and about 30 die.[18] The shell of the egg may be contaminated with salmonella by feces or environment (common), or its interior (yolk) may be contaminated by penetration of the bacteria through the porous shell or from a hen whose infected ovaries contaminate the egg during egg formation (unlikely).” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonella

FDA ties chicken feed to salmonella in egg recall
“WASHINGTON (Reuters) – Bacteria found in

chicken feed used at two Iowa farms has been linked to a salmonella outbreak that prompted the recall of more than a half billion contaminated eggs, U.S. regulators said on Thursday.”
 By Alina Selyukh Alina Selyukh – Thu Aug 26, 5:24 pm ET

So what's happening to the recalled eggs and the fresh ones?
“Eggs from that massive salmonella outbreak could still

end up on a store shelf near you.

CBS News has learned that some of the recalled eggs are being sent to egg processing facilities, along with fresh ones that infected hens are still producing. The eggs will be cooked, pasteurized and used in products like ice cream and mayonnaise. The FDA says it's legal and safety experts insist there's little risk to consumers.” http://ozarksfirst.com/fulltext?nxd_id=316835

Surprise: Antibiotics May Be Contributing to the Obesity Epidemic
 “Microbiologists at New York University have

published a new study that says the overprescribing of antibiotics could be making us fat! Researchers fed infant mice low doses of penicillin; after 30 weeks, penicillin-fed mice were between 10 and 15 per cent bigger and twice as fat as drug-free mice.”  “This affirms research from Copenhagen which found that infants given antibiotics within the first six months of life were more likely to be overweight at age 7, even if their mother was of a healthy weight.”
 http://www.anh-usa.org/antibiotics-may-be-contributing-to-the-obesity-


The Good Guys….
 Food Production:  Probiotics  Probiotics are living organisms that, when consumed, have

beneficial health benefits outside their inherent nutritional effects. There is a growing body of evidence for the role of probiotics in gastrointestinal infections, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.[3][4]  Lactobacillus species are used for the production of yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, pickles, beer, wine, cider, kimchi, chocolate and other fermented foods, as well as animal feeds such as silage. In recent years, much interest has been shown in the use of lactobacilli as probiotic organisms and their potential for disease prevention in humans and

 “Bifidobacteria are considered as important probiotics, and

are used in the food industry to relieve and treat many intestinal disorders. Bifidobacteria exert a range of beneficial health effects, including the regulation of intestinal microbial homeostasis, the inhibition of pathogens and harmful bacteria that colonize and/or infect the gut mucosa, the modulation of local and systemic immune responses, the repression of procarcinogenic enzymatic activities within the microbiota, the production of vitamins, and the bioconversion of a number of dietary compounds into bioactive molecules.[4][6]”  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_microbiology#Probioti cs

How to Prevent Salmonella Poisoning

Noncellular infectious agent Consists of protein wrapped around a nucleic

acid core Cannot reproduce itself; can only be reproduced using a host cell

Viral Body Plans
Genetic material is DNA or

RNA Coat is protein

Helical virus

Polyhedral virus

Complex virus (bacteriophage)

Enveloped Virus (HIV)

lipid envelope; proteins span the envelope, line its inner surface, spike out above it

viral coat (proteins)

Viral Multiplication - Basic Steps
Virus attaches to host cell Whole virus or genetic material enters host Viral DNA or RNA directs host to make viral genetic

material and protein Viral nucleic acids and proteins are assembled New viral particles are released from cell

Lytic Pathway



Assembly Virus injects genetic material

Production of viral components

Lysogenic Pathway
Latent period extends the cycle Viral DNA becomes part of host chromosome for a time

Stimulus may cause cell to enter lytic pathway

Viral material integrated

Viral material passed on

Video: Virus Reproduction

Replication of an Enveloped Virus

Transcription of viral genes DNA replication

Translation Proteins


Food and Water Borne Viruses

Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses Polio hepatitis A (HA) Massive virus discovered in water tower

Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses
small round structured viruses (SRSVs) strand RNA single structural protein viral gastroenteritis self-limiting, mild, and characterized by nausea,

vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

Disney ship docks with 195 ill

PORT CANAVERAL, Florida (CNN) -- Sunny skies greeted the Disney cruise ship Magic as it docked here early Saturday, carrying 195 sick passengers and crew members. Norwalk virus. (2002)


“The largest virus ever discovered has been found in a water-cooling tower in Bradford, England. It was lurking inside single-celled organisms called amoebae, but its discoverers believe that it may also be capable of infecting humans. “


Photo from the New Scientist
girth of 400 nanometers (visible with a good light microscope) 900 genes

Small water-food borne RNA virus In about 1% of the infected population, the virus

attacks and kills motor neurons This results in various degrees of paralysis


Polio’s Effects



Hepatitis A (HA) Symptoms

fatigue jaundice abdominal pain loss of appetite nausea diarrhea fever

Persons at Risk
Household contacts of infected persons Sex contacts of infected persons Persons, especially children, living in areas with

increased rates of hepatitis A during the baseline period from 1987-1997. Persons traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common Men who have sex with men Injecting and non-injecting drug users

Average reported cases of hepatitis A per 100,000 population*, 1987-1997

Red> 20

The HA World

“HAV is found in the stool (feces) of persons with

hepatitis A. HAV is usually spread from person to person by putting something in the mouth (even though it may look clean) that has been contaminated with the stool of a person with hepatitis A. ”

“Hepatitis A vaccine is the best protection. Short-term protection against hepatitis A is

available from immune globulin. It can be given before and within 2 weeks after coming in contact with HAV. Always wash your hands with soap and water after using the bathroom, changing a diaper, and before preparing and eating food.”

“Travelers to areas with increased rates of hepatitis

A Men who have sex with men Injecting and non-injecting drug users Persons with clotting-factor disorders (e.g. hemophilia) Persons with chronic liver disease Children living in areas with increased rates of hepatitis A during the baseline period from 19871997.”


HA “Jaundice” and the “Viral Particle”

http://www.apotheke-im-globus-wachau.de/Service/reis http://www.webcolombia.com/health/hepatitis/sintomas.jpg

Outback chain acquires Chi-Chi's

LOUISVILLE, Ky. (AP) — Chi-Chi's, the chain of Mexican restaurants, may have served its last chimichanga. Outback Steakhouse Inc. this week closed on its $42.5 million deal for the rights to 76 restaurants in the Chi-Chi's chain, which was beleaguered by bankruptcy and a hepatitis outbreak.


Dry Air Causes Winter Flu Outbreaks
Discovery News Wed Mar 3, 2010 03:44 AM ET

 “Researchers link flu outbreaks with low humidity levels of

winter.  Winters in New York are four times less humid than in summer. In Minnesota, humidity can drop five-fold.  Linking the flu to absolute humidity could help health workers prepare for outbreaks.”

Molecular Mechanism


Google Predicts Flu Outbreaks

Smaller than viruses Strands or circles of RNA No protein-coding genes No protein coat Cause many plant diseases

Most known viroids cause diseases in plants. The first viroid was discovered in 1971, by Diener.

It's called the potato spindle tuber virus (PSTV), Contains a single loop of RNA Relies wholly on enzymes all ready in the host cell


“Vegetable MD Online”
Cornell University Ag School


Small proteins Linked to human diseases  Kuru  Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) Animal diseases  Scrapie in sheep  Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)

BSE (Mad Cow Disease)
There is a disease similar to BSE called CreutzfeldtJacob Disease (CJD) that is found in people.

Warnings Sent to Emory Brain Patients
ATLANTA Oct. 1, 2004 — Emory University

officials sent warning letters to more than 500 surgery patients at the school's medical center after a brain surgery patient tested positive for a fatal disease similar to the human version of mad cow disease. Chances of infection are very low, said Dr. William Bornstein, chief quality officer for Emory Healthcare. "By using modern sterilization, this has never been transmitted," he said.


UK's Mad Cow Disease on Asian discovery channel

Protistans Differ from Prokaryotes

Have a nucleus and organelles Have proteins associated with DNA Use microtubules in a cytoskeleton,

spindle apparatus, and cilia and flagella May contain chloroplasts May divide by mitosis and meiosis

Major Lineages

    

Chytrids Water molds Slime molds Protozoans Sporozoans

– Red algae – Brown algae – Green algae – Golden algae – Diatoms

Mix or Both
– Euglenoids – Dinoflagellate

Animal-Like Protistans
Informally known as protozoans May resemble single-celled heterotrophic

protistans that gave rise to animals Include predators, parasites, and grazers

Major Groups of Protozoans

Sarcodina - Amoeboid protozoans Ciliphora - Ciliated protozoans Mastigophora - Animal-like flagellates Apicomplexa - Parasitic heterotrophs such as

the sporozoans

Naked Amoebas

Change shape constantly Move by means of pseudopods Most are free-living cells that engulf their prey Some are symbionts in animal guts A few are opportunistic pathogens



Video: Amoeba


Amoeba Infection In Brain

(CNN) -- An unidentified 12-year-old died Friday after being infected with an amoeba while swimming in a Florida lake. The boy had meningeal encephalitis -- a combination of meningitis and encephalitis, which causes the brain to swell, according to Dr. Jaime Carrizosa, an infectious disease specialist from Florida Hospital in Orlando. Carrizosa had treated the boy.


Amoeba Video


Other Ameboid Protozoans


Calcium carbonate shell

Radiolarians and Heliozoans

Shells of silica


Shelled amoeba, calcium carbonate

Do not post photos on Internet

Shelled amoeba, silica

A living heliozoan

Ciliated Protozoans
Phylum Ciliphora All heterotrophs Arrays of cilia allow

movement and direct food into oral cavity


Body Plan of Paramecium

food residues being ejected food vacuole


cilia trichocysts (“harpoons”)

contractile vacuole emptied macronucleus micronucleus

contractile vacuole full

Ciliate Conjugation
Most ciliates have two different nuclei
 

Large macronucleus Smaller micronucleus

Micronucleus participates in sexual reproduction


Partners exchange micronuclei

Paramecium Conjugation

Video: Ciliates



Animal-Like Flagellates
Phylum Mastigophora Move by means of flagella All are heterotrophs
 

Free-living species in freshwater and marine habitats Many are internal parasites

Body Plan of a Trypanosome (Causes African Sleeping Sickness)

Undulating membrane


basal body of flagellum

free flagellum nucleus

Trichomonas vaginalis (Common STD)

Trichomonas vaginalis
“Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted

disease (STD), although transmission by other routes (such as soiled towels) has been documented.

 Most people infected with trichomoniasis are


 Symptomatic infections are characterized by a white

discharge from the genital tract and itching.”


Red tide organisms

Red Tide

Videos: Red Tide
 From the Mote Marine Laboratory, FL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LdLWPwdwVs San Diego, CA

“Amazing blue glowing waves at La Jolla Shores beach caused by the red tide that hit San Diego on September 29, 2011. The bright blue color is caused by bioluminescence from an algae bloom. The algae is red in the day, hence the name Red Tide, but glows a bright blue at night when agitated, such as when a wave breaks. It's a really awesome sight to see.... when people swim in the water, the entire water around them glows blue. Truly amazing!”


Red Tide Toxins Can Cause Respiratory Problems in Humans

Source: Boston Globe, 3/29/05

Parasitic Complete part of the life cycle inside specific

cells of a host organism
Many have elaborate life cycles that require

different hosts
Many cause serious human disease


Motile infective stage (sporozoite)

invades intestinal epithelium
Causes cramps, watery diarrhea Commonly transmitted by water

contaminated with cysts

Cysts may be ingested with raw or undercooked

meat Exposure to cysts from cat feces Symptoms are usually mild in people with normal immune function Infection during pregnancy can kill or damage the embryo

Cat Vector (Toxoplasma)

Cat parasite 'is killing otters'

 BBC News website science reporter, St Louis 19 Feb 2006
Cat faeces carrying Toxoplasma parasites wash into US waterways and then into the sea where they can infect otters, causing brain disease.

Symptoms have been known for more than

2,000 years
Most prevalent in tropical and subtropical

parts of Africa
Kills a million Africans each year Caused by four species of Plasmodium Transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes

Plasmodium Life Cycle


sporozites Gametes form in mosquito gut, combine to form zygotes

merozoite Offspring enter blood, cause malarial symptoms

Male and female gametocytes in blood

Malaria deaths hugely underestimated - Lancet study BBC 2 February 2012
 “The research, published in the British medical journal the Lancet,

suggests 1.24 million people died from the mosquito-borne disease in 2010.  This compares to a World Health Organization (WHO) estimate for 2010 of 655,000 deaths.  But both the new study and the WHO indicate global death rates are now falling.”  “The rise in malaria deaths up to 2004 is attributed to a growth in populations at risk of malaria, while the decline since 2004 is attributed to "a rapid scaling up of malaria control in Africa", supported by international donors.”

A Sporozoan Causes Bagdad Boils
 Eck Family Institute http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-mD7jzUklQ “Cutaneous leishmaniasis (also known as "Aleppo boil,"
"Baghdad boil," "Bay sore," "Biskra button," "Chiclero ulcer," "Delhi boil," "Kandahar sore," "Lahore sore," "Leishmaniasis tropica," "Oriental sore," "Pian bois," and "Uta"[1]:423)

is the most common form of leishmaniasis. It is a skin infection caused by a single-celled parasite that is transmitted by sandfly bites. There are about 20 species of Leishmania that may cause cutaneous leishmaniasis.”  “Leishmania currently affects 12 million people in 88 countries.” Wkipedia

Phylum Euglenophyta Free-living flagellated cells that live in

freshwater Majority are photoautotrophs Some are heterotrophs that feed on dissolved organic compounds Sewage pollution indicator organisms

Euglenoid Body Plan

long flagellum contractile vacuole chloroplast

eyespot shielding a ER light-sensitive receptor nucleus Golgi body

mitochondrion pellicle

Video: Euglena

Video: Euglena - 2


Phylum Chrysophyta Mainly free-living photosynthetic cells Four groups:
- Golden algae - Yellow-green algae - Diatoms - Coccolithophores

Mixed Diatoms

Diatom Characteristics
Cell wall is composed of silica Two valves (halves) similar to a Petri dish Golden/green in color Important primary producers in both marine and

freshwater ecosystems

Video: Diatoms


Centric and Pennate Diatoms

Green Algae

• Phylum Chlorophyta • 7,000 species • Resemble plants
– Chlorophylls a and b – Starch grains in chloroplasts – Cell walls of cellulose, pectins

Chlamydomonas Life Cycle

Zygote Diploid Haploid

Nuclear fusion

Meiosis, germination

Mitosis Cytoplasmic fusion Asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction Gametes meet

Conjugating Spirogyra

Green Technology
From the History Channel


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful