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ROLE OF COMPUTERS IN RESEARCH

WHAT IS A COMPUTER?
Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory
Processes data into information Accepts data

Collection of unprocessed items

Conveys meaning and is useful to people

Produces and stores results

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CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS
Personal Computers (desktop) Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Game Consoles Servers Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded Computers
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A server controls access to network resources and provides centralized storage Mainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of connected users Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations

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RESEARCH AND COMPUTERS

WHAT IS RESEARCH?
Research is an organized and systematic study of materials and sources in order to discover new things and establish facts and reach new conclusion.

RESEARCHERS USING COMPUTERS

Engineers Scientists Architects Desktop publishers Graphic artists

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WHY IS A COMPUTER SO USEFUL IN RESEARCH?


Storage Reliability Speed

Enormous amounts of data can be stored and made available for processing anytime it is needed
Accuracy

Dependable because components have a low failure rate so they produce consistent results

Billions of operations can be carried out in a single second

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If data is entered correctly and program works properly, the results are error-free garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) accuracy of output depends on accuracy of input

Communications

Two connected computers can share stored data, instructions, and information

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN RESEARCH

NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET


Worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals

What is the Internet?

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What is the Web?


Billions of documents, called Web pages, available to anyone connected to the Internet
A Web site is a collection of related Web pages You can share information on a social networking Web site or a photo sharing community A podcast is recorded audio stored on a Web site that can be downloaded

A Web page contains text, graphics, audio, video, and links to other Web pages

A blog consists of timestamped articles in a journal format

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COMPUTER SOFTWARE
What is software?

Consists of a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do and how to do it

Also called a program

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What is applicatiosoftware?
Programs designed to make users more productive
Word Processing Database Spreadsheet Presentation Graphics

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Disadvantages of using computers

Violation of Privacy

Public Safety

Impact on Labor Force

Health Risks

Impact on Environment

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