1

Petroleum Engineering 406
Lesson 20
Directional Drilling
(continued)

2
Lesson 17
- Directional Drilling cont’d

Tool-Face Angle

Ouija Board

Dogleg Severity

Reverse Torque of Mud Motor

Examples

3
Homework:
READ:

Applied Drilling Engineering”, Chapter 8
(to page 375)

4
Fig. 8. 30: Graphical Ouija Analysis.
Solution
Tool Face (γ)

5
Fig. 8. 30: Graphical Ouija Analysis.
Solution
Tool Face (γ)
Initial Inclination = 16
o
GIVEN:
α = 16
o

∆ε = 12
o
α
Ν
= 12
o
γ = ?
o

β = ?
o
N
e
w

I
n
c
l
i
n
a
t
i
o
n

-

1
2
o
∆ε = 12
o
Over one drilled interval (bit run)

6
Fig. 8.33
Basis of chart
construction is a
trigonometric
relationship
illustrated by two
intersecting
planes
β
β = dogleg angle
α
∆ε
α
Ν

7
Problem 1
Determine the new direction (ε
Ν
) for a
whipstock set at 705 m with a tool-face
setting of 45
0
degrees right of high side
for a course length of 10 m.
The inclination is 7
0
and the direction is
N15W. The curve of the whipstock will
cause a total angle change of 3
0
/30 m.

8
Problem 1
α = 7
o
(inclination)
ε = 345
o
(azimuth)
γ = 45
o
(tool face angle)
L = 10 m (course length)
δ = 3
o
/ 30 m (dogleg severity)

Ν
= ?
o
γ = 45
o

9
Solution to Problem 1, part 1
I. Use Equation 8.43 to calculate .
The dogleg severity,
β
o
1
m 30
m 10 3
i
L
) i (
L
·

·
δ
· β ∴
β
· δ


10
Solution to Problem 1, part 2
2. Use Equation 8.42 to calculate the
direction change.
New direction =345
0
+5.3
0
= 350.3
0
= N9.7W
γ α β + α
γ β
· ε ∆
cos cos tan sin
sin tan
tan arc
   
 
45 cos 7 cos 1 tan 7 sin
45 sin 1 tan
tan
1
+
· ε ∆


3 . 5 092027 . 0 tan
1
≅ · ε ∆


11
Problem 2
Determine where to set the tool face angle,
for a jetting bit to go from a direction of
10
0
to 30
0
and from an inclination of 3
0
to 5
0
.
Also calculate the dogleg severity,
assuming that the trajectory change takes
60 ft.
α = 3
ε = 10
Find
ft 60 L
30
5
N
N
·
· ε
· α


and
ε

12
Solution to Problem 2, part 1
1. Find β using Equation 8.53
[ ]
[ ]
o 1
o o o o o 1
N N
1
4097 . 2 999116 . 0 cos
3 cos 5 cos 3 sin 5 sin 20 cos cos
cos cos sin sin cos cos
≅ ·
+ ·
α α + α α ε ∆ · β




13
Solution to Problem 2, part 2
2. Now calculate from equation 8.48.
o 1
15 . 45 7052 . 0 cos · · γ

1
]
1

¸


· γ

o o
o o o
1
4097 . 2 sin 3 sin
5 cos 4097 . 2 cos 3 cos
cos
1
]
1

¸

β α
α − β α
· γ

sin sin
cos cos cos
cos
N
1

14
Solution to Problem 2, part 3
3. The dogleg severity,

= 4.01
o
/ 100 ft
Alternate solution: Use Ouija Board

100
60
4097 . 2
(i)
L
o
∗ ·
β
· δ

15
Fig. 8.31: Solution to Example 8.6.

16
Problem 3
Determine the dogleg severity following a
jetting run where the inclination was changed
from 4.3
o
to 7.1
o
and the direction from N89E
to S80E over a drilled interval of 85 feet.
1. Solve by calculation.
2. Solve using Ragland diagram
L = 85 ft o
N
o
o
N
o
100 89
7.1 3 . 4
· ε · ε
· α · α
∆α = 7.1 - 4.3 = 2.8. ∆ε = 100 - 89 = 11

17
Solution to Problem 3, part 1
1. From Equation 8.55
2 / 1
2 2 2 1
2
1 . 7 3 . 4
sin
2
11
sin
2
8 . 2
sin sin 2
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+
+ · β

2 / 1
N
2 2 2 1
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin sin 2
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
α + α ε ∆
+
α ∆
· β

= 3.01
o

18
Solution to Problem 3, part 1
1. From Equation 8.43
the dogleg severity,
100
85
01 . 3
(i)
L
∗ ·
β
· δ
feet 100 / 5 . 3
o
· δ

19
Solution to Problem 3, part 2
2. Construct line of length α (4.3
o
)
Measure angle ∆ε (11
o
)
Construct line of length α
N
(7.1
o
)
Measure length β
(Measure angle γ )
4.3
7.1
11
o
Ragland Diagram
β

20
Some Equations to Calculate β

) cos cos sin sin cos(cos arc
N N
α α + α α ε ∆ · β
N N
sin sin cos sin sin cos cos α α − α ∆ + α α ε ∆ · β
Eq. 8.53
Eq. 8.54

,
_

¸
¸
α + α

,
_

¸
¸
ε ∆
+

,
_

¸
¸
α ∆
· β
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin sin arc 2
N
2 2 2
Eq. 8.55

21
Overall Angle Change and
Dogleg Severity
Equation 8.51 derived by Lubinski is used
to construct Figure 8.32,
a nomograph for determining
the total angle change β and
the dogleg severity, δ.


22
Fig. 8.32: Chart
for determining
dogleg severity

23
∆ε = 11
o
(α+α
Ν
)/2 = 5.7
o
α
Ν
− α = 2.8
o
β = 3
o
δ = 3.5
o
/100 ft

24
∆ε = 11
o
(α+α
Ν
)/2
= 5.7
o

25
α
Ν
− α = 2.8
o
β = 3
o

26
β = 3
o
δ = 3.5
o
/100 ft

27
∆ε = 11
o
(α+α
Ν
)/2 = 5.7
o
α
Ν
− α = 2.8
o
β = 3
o
δ = 3.5
o
/100 ft

28
Problem 4 - Torque and Twist
1.Calculate the total angle change of
3,650 ft. of 4 1/2 inches (3.826 ” ID)
Grade E 16.60 #/ft drill pipe and 300 ft.
of 7” drill collars (2 13/16” ID) for a bit-
generated torque of 1,000 ft-lbf.
Assume that the motor has the same
properties as the 7” drill collars. Shear
modules of steel, G = 11.5*10
6
psi.
2. What would be the total angle change if
7,300 ft. of drill pipe were
used?

29
Solution to Problem 4
From Equation 8.56,
g drillstrin BHA motor
M
GJ
ML
GJ
ML
GJ
ML

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
· θ
( ) ( )
4 4 4 4 4
in 22 . 19 826 . 3 5 . 4
32
ID OD
32
J Pipe, for · −
π
· −
π
·
( )
4 4 4
in 6 . 229 813 . 2 7
32
J Collars, for · −
π
·

30
Solution to Problem 4, cont.
[ ]
o
4 4
2
pipe collars
M
2 . 137
rad
deg 180
rad 394 . 2
radians 394 . 2 88 . 278 , 2 68 . 15 001043 . 0
in 22 . 19
in 12 650 , 3
in 6 . 229
in 12 300
in
lbf
10 5 . 11
ft
in
12 lbs . ft 000 , 1
J
L
J
L
G
M
·
π
∗ · θ ∴
· + ·
1
1
]
1

¸


+



·
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
· θ ∴
radians

31
Solution to Problem 4, cont.
If Length of drillpipe = 7,300 ft.,
θ
M
= 0.001043 [15.68+2*2278.88]
= 4.77 radians *
rad
deg 180
π
o
M
3 . 273 · θ
~ 3/4 revolution!
137.2

32
Example 8.10
Design a kickoff for the wellbore in Fig. 8.35.

From Ouija Board, β · 5.8
ο
, γ · 97
ο

ε = S48W = 228
o
ε
N
= N53W = 307
o

α = 2
o
L = 150 ft α
N
= 6
o

∆ε = 79
o
Find β, γ and δ



33
Fig. 8.36: Solution for Example 8.10.
Where to Set the Tool Face
High
Side
Present Direction
High
Side
New
Direction
β · 5.8
ο
γ · 97
ο

34
Dogleg Severity
From Equation 8.43
the dogleg severity,
100
150
8 . 5
(i)
L
∗ ·
β
· δ
feet 100 / 87 . 3
o
· δ

35
Fig. 8.36:
Solution
for
Example
8.10.
307
o
With jetting bit: 325
o
345
o
228
o
θ
M
= 20
o

36
Fig. 8.36: Solution for Example 8.10.
Where to Set the Tool Face
High
Side
Present
Direction
New
Direction
Tool Face
Setting
Compensating for Reverse
Torque of the Motor
High
Side

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