This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
WHAT IS CHANGE?
Change is considered with making things different. Change intervention is a planned action to make things different. The person or persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process is the change agent.
Defn of CHANGE
Change is defined as „ to make or become different, give or begin to have a different form‟. Change also means dissatisfaction with the old and belief in the new.
WHY CHANGE ? To survive and eventually prosper. an organization must monitor its external environment and align itself with changes that occur. Change takes place on three levels: . or tend to occur.
The self. In a process.Contd…. change needs to be facilitated on all three levels to become sustainable. . the team or the (small) organization and the wider system that surrounds the team or the small organization or the organizational unit – depending on how the borders are defined.
CHANGE IN HISTORY In 513 B. Niccolo Machivelli stated in his political treatise. Heraclitus of Greece observed “ There is nothing permanent expect change”.C. than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things”. more perilous to conduct. “There is nothing more difficult to take in hand. . In 16th century. or more uncertain in its success.. The Prince.
Contd….Establish a sense of urgency 2.Create a vision for change 4. Eight step model to implement change by John P. but you can‟t make it drink”.Obtain management & peer backing 3.Kotter – 1. Simply managing change is insufficient. The old saying. “You can lead a horse to water. Successful change requires leadership.Communicate the vision .
Contd…. 6. Empower employees to implement change Establish short term goals Encourage additional changes Reinforce changes made as permanent. 7. . 8. 5.
b. f. g.WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF CHANGE a. Mission Workload Political Environment Changes in management Resources Technological. e. . c. d.
Some people accept and some people resist change. The world we live in is constantly changing and at an accelerated rate. Organizations and individuals must continually adapt to this changing environment by changing themselves or they will not survive.DEALING WITH CHANGE Change is an inevitable part of all organization. .
. we experience the following – 1. we still believe things worked better before the change & bargain for reinstating the old system.Bargaining & Negotiating – when we perceive that the change don‟t go away. the first reaction is to deny it. 2. we get angry.Denial – when things change. and we can do nothing about it.Anger – when we realize change is here to stay.PHASES OF CHANGE when change is introduced & there is an understanding that it will be implemented. 3.
3. Clarify goals and expectations.Accepting 2. .HOW TO DEAL WITH CHANGE Once change is communicated and implemented. how we are going to get there.Communicating – share and communicate our feeling through which we get more information and fear can be reduced. we can play a part in reducing the effects on us by: 1.Planning – where we were and where we want to be. get feedback from others.
threatens their feelings of safety 3.Security.Selecitive Information Processing Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. .Fear of the Unknown : the experience of school to college 5. 2.Economic Factors – changes will lower one‟s income specially when pay is closed tied with productivity 4.INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE The following are the five reasons why individuals may resist change: 1.Habit – while going to college use the same route.
which allow for managers to gain access to information directly from a company mainframe. Threat to Establish Power Relationship – redistribution of decision making authority can threaten long-established power relationships within the organization. Structural Inertia – selection process. Union member. are interdependent. 3. Threat to Expertise – decentralized personal computers.ORGANIZATIONAL RESISTENCE 1. difficult to change one without affecting others. Threat to Establish Resource Allocations – Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. It was resisted by centralized information depts. Group Inertia – individuals want to change but group acts as constraint. 2. Reduction in their budget or cut in their staff size? . 4. 5. Limited focus of change – depts. 6.
OVERCOMING RESISTENCE TO CHANGE Six tactics have been suggested for use by change agents in dealing with resistance to change. Education & Communication 2. training etc to reduce fear.Facilitation & Support – counseling.Negotiation 5. .Participation 3. 4.Manipulation & Co-optation 6.Coercion 1.
It also helps in finding how to change.PERSONAL CHANGE Personal change is defined as means of improvement in an individual‟s life. . It aims at tapping the unlimited potential available in the individual.
UNDERSTANDING PERSONAL CHANGE Personal change is a process of movement of an individual from current undesirable level to a desirable level of behavior to improve the organizational and individual effectiveness and efficiency. Identified & Desire to change .
. Learning might be unexpected & surprising. Discovery involves willingness to learn.PERSONAL CHANGE PROCESS Step 1: PC starts with discovery. how you do things. finding out more about yourself. how you have been limiting your options.
. Ex: The problem with getting angry inappropriately.. Step 2: After discovery phase clearing phase starts which involves the process of realizing and rejecting the wrong answers which have become a part of us.Contd. That would allow clearing undesirable responses now. The process of discovery helps realize that the anger really belonged with a specific incident 30 years ago.. Clearing is a key element in Personal Change..
.. Clearing then leads to programming which is establishing useful ways of how to do things.. That might involve the discovery of how things are being done and the creation of more powerful new methods. Once the Programming phase is over the phase of processing starts..Step 3: Contd.
2.ELEMENTS / COMPONENTS OF PERSONAL CHANGE 1. Self – Awareness. 4. Self Efficacy. Self Esteem . Self – Analysis. . 3.
8. values & beliefs: Values and beliefs are the primary causes of conflicts.Is aware of one‟s strengths & limitations 2. 6.Has a clear idea of one‟s priorities: know what is imp 3.Is aware of ones feelings & emotions & how they affect oneself & others 7.Knows how one‟s behavior is affecting others 5.1.SELF-AWARENESS A self-aware person is one who: 1. 4. .Is aware of one‟s attitudes.One has relatively stable & strong self-image & is not unduly perturbed by what others say about oneself.One is aware of his fears & anxieties & the defenses he usually employs to protect his sanity.Knows how others are affecting oneself.
. Self awareness helps in – 1.Personal development through self-awareness 2.Knowing your strengths and weaknesses 4. including one‟s own traits.Stress .Skill development 3. feelings & behaviors.Developing intuitive decision-making skills 5.Contd... SELF AWARENESS – can be defined as the ability to perceive one‟s own existence.
. 10..Contd.. 6. 9. Motivation Leadership Practicing this management skill Ask somebody Seek professional help . 8. 7.
awareness Emotional Self-awareness is the key to increased personal & organizational performance.. .. & mutual understanding between individuals within a group. Johari Window explains Self awareness as an element of personal Change. Johari Window is a tool used for illustrating & improving self-awareness.21st century leadership is based on emotional selfContd..
. . Developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingram in the 1950‟s. effective learning is facilitated by good interpersonal communication. who recognized that..Contd..
attitudes.„open/ free area‟. from four prospective. & „unknown area‟. etc within or about a person-in relation to their group. views. experience. intensions. which are „regions‟ or „areas‟ or „quadrants‟ . It represents information – feelings. „blind area‟. motivation. skills. „hidden area‟. Johari Window model is referred to as a „disclosure / feedback‟ model of self awareness and by some people an „information processing tool‟. .
Known by self Unknown by self Known by others ARENA BLIND CONCEALED / HIDDEN Unknown by others DARK / UNKNOWN .
open self.What is unknown by the person about him/herself & is also unknown by others – unknown area or unknown self. or „blindspot‟. hidden self.What is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know – blind area. . free self. free area.Johari Window four regions: 1. or „the arena‟. 2. Contd. avoided area.. 3.What the person knows about him/herself that others do not know – hidden area. avoided self.. or „façade‟. 4.. blind self. What is known by the person about him/himself & is also known by others – open area.
JOHARI Window: An Interpersonal Communications Model KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME KNOWN TO OTHERS Public Arena Open Blind spot Bad Unaccepted UNKNOWN TO OTHERS Hidden Avoided Private Unknown Unconscious Not tried .
JOHARI Window: An Interpersonal Communications Model KNOWN TO ME Name Height Education/Dept Marks scored UNKNOWN TO ME Bad breath Snoring Untidy table Short tempered KNOWN TO OTHERS Bad habits Known fears UNKNOWN Unshared secrets TO OTHERS Jealousy Potentials Unknown fears Untried methods Unseen places .
When you share about yourself or self-disclose: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME KNOWN TO OTHERS Public Arena Open Hidden Avoided Private Blind spot Bad Unaccepted UNKNOWN TO OTHERS Unknown Unconscious Not tried .
When you share about yourself or self-disclose: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME KNOWN TO OTHERS Name Height Education/Dept Marks scored Native place Parents Old friends Blind spot Bad Unaccepted UNKNOWN TO OTHERS Hidden Avoided Private Unknown Unconscious Not tried .
When you solicit or receive feedback & Improve KNOWN TO ME Name Height Education/Dept Marks scored Native place Parents Old friends UNKNOWN TO ME (Mouth Wash) Snoring (Organised Table) Short tempered KNOWN TO OTHERS UNKNOWN TO OTHERS Hidden Avoided Private Unknown Unconscious Not tried .
When you solicit or receive feedback and self-disclose: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Blind spot Bad Unaccepted KNOWN TO OTHERS Public Arena Open Hidden Avoided Private UNKNOWN TO OTHERS Unknown Unconscious Not tried .
When you acquire knowledge: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME KNOWN TO OTHERS Public Arena Open Hidden Avoided Private Blind spot Bad Unaccepted UNKNOWN TO OTHERS Learn new things Like swimming .
JOHARI Window : Ideal KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME KNOWN TO OTHERS More Strengths More Comfort Less weaknesses Free to interact UNKNOWN TO OTHERS Less avoidance Less fear Known potentials. Increased Learning .
MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI) 1. . Myer‟s Brigg‟s classification means the person can begin to identify preference in behavior & how the individual is similar to & different from him/her. 2. Psychological tool used for self-awareness.
.The way they prefer to make decisions (Thinking or Feeling) 4.Where they prefer to focus their attention & get energy (Extroversion or Introversion) 2. The MBTI preferences indicate the differences in people that result from the following – 1.Contd. .The way they prefer to take in information (Sensing or Intuition) 3.How they orient themselves to the external world-with a judging process or a perceiving process (Judging or Perceiving) There is no right or wrong to these preferences.. Each identifies normal & valuable human behaviors..
.Understanding other‟s strengths & weaknesses 5.Allocating responsibilities 7.Working in teams-by ensuring that all relevant necessary capabilities are represented in the team & agreeing tasks & project 6.Contd. The MBTI model is useful for: 1.Agreeing roles & development with others & for oneself..Understanding what motivates others 4..Understanding & developing others 3..Understanding & developing yourself 2.
(E) Extraversion Or Introversion (I) The focus or direction or orientation of our behavior – outward or inward How we gather information ‘Attitude’ or orientation (S) Sensing Or Nituition (N) Function (Jungian ‘Irrational’ or MB ‘Perceiving’) Function (Jungain ‘Rational’ or MB ‘Judging’) Myers Briggs’ added dimension equating to Jung’s ‘Irrational’ & ‘Rational’ (T) Thinking Or Feeling (F) How we decide (J) Judging Or Perceiving (P) How we react to the world – do prefer to make decisions or keep open to options (& also which middle ‘Functions’ do we favour) .
6. 5. people & things. .ISFP – They have a dominant quality which is deep felt caring. the driving force in their lives is to understand how things & phenomena in the real world work so that they can make the best & most effective use of them. combined with a quietly playful & sometimes adventurous approach to life & all its experiences.ESTJ – the driving force in their lives is their need to analyze & bring into logical order the outer world of events. for living things.ISTP – For them. 2. Sixteen Personality types are – ISTJ – The dominant quality in their lives is an abiding sense of responsibility for doing what needs to be done in the here & now. 7.ESTP – For these individuals the dominant quality in their lives is their enthusiastic attention to the outer world of hands on & real life experiences.Contd…. 3.ISFJ – the dominant quality in their lives is an abiding respect & sense of personal resp for doing what need to be done in the here & now. 1.ESFP – For them the dominant quality in their lives is their enthusiastic attention to the outer world of hands on & real life experiences. 4.
Contd…. & things. 12. people. INTJ – is their attention to the inner world of possibilities. images & thoughts. abstractions. ENFJ – is an active & intense caring about people & a strong desire to bring harmony into their relationships. 15. INFJ – is their attention to the inner world of possibilities. 8. ENTJ – is their need to analyze & bring into logical order the outer world of events. 11. INFP – is a deep felt caring & idealism about people. symbols. . ESFJ – active & intense caring about people & a strong desire to bring harmony in their relationships. people or activities. 14. whether it be ideas. they are exited by continuous involvement in anything new. 13. 9. ENTP – is their excitement in continuous involvement in anything new. ENFP – is their attention to the outer world of possibilities. 16. 10. ideas & symbols. INTP – is to understand what ever phenomenon is the focus of their attention.
Whether or not one is capable of handling the various roles and responsibilities one has accepted. Self analysis helps a person in understanding: Whether or not one has a suitable aptitude for a given job.2. What motivates and what drains one‟s energy. Self analysis has to do with a personal SWOT analysis. SELF ANALYSIS Personal change begins with analyzing oneself. .
Whether one brings out the best in others or the worst in others. .. An important aspect of self analysis is to examine whether one has meaningful relationships with others & to move away from relationships that are not fulfilling... others around him/her. Who in the environment be it a personal or official capacity brings out the best in oneself and who brings out the worst in oneself? One‟s stress tolerance potential.Contd. his/her organization and community. Whether one is doing the work that is meaningful to himself / herself.
Contd. One‟s current and previous jobs. including any voluntary work One‟s interest outside work and extracurricular activities One‟s course and Any other significant experiences. in life. Exercise on self analysis – blank sheet of paper start answering the following questions.. ...
Ask Oneself : 1.Why did I choose the course, job, experience? 2.Which parts of this experience did I really enjoy? 3.Which parts did I find frustrating or boring? 4.Which bits was I best at? 5.Which bits did I find a struggle? have other people said about my 6.What contribution in this job, course, and experience? 7.What do others consider I am good at? (Ask them)
It tells us about the sorts of skills one feels most comfortable using, the sort of environment one performs best in and the types of people with whom one enjoys working.
3. SELF ESTEEM
Self-esteem or self-worth is defined as a person‟s self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason & logic. According to Hellriegel, Slocum & Woodman defined Self esteem as the result of an individual‟s continuing evaluation of himself or herself. According to Rosenberg’s described it as a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the self.
& by one‟s peers. . all contributes to the creation of one‟s basic self esteem. coaches.Contd…. – experience during childhood. religious authorities.how we were treated by the members of one‟s immediate family. . teachers.one‟s successes & failures. Factors determining one’s self esteem: build an image of oneself through one‟s experiences with different people & activities. .
Contd…. Nature of Low Self-Esteemed Person & Healthy Self Esteemed Person -People with low self-esteem often rely on how they are doing in the present to determine how they feel about themselves. -People with healthy self esteem are able to assess oneself accurately. They need +ve external experiences to counteract the –ve feelings & thoughts that constantly plague them. They will be able to realistically acknowledge one‟s strengths & limitations & at the same time accepting oneself as worthy & worthwhile without conditions or reservations. Even them the good feeling can be temporary. .
Childhood experiences that include being yelled at. • Causes for healthy & low self esteem CAUSES FOR HEALTHY SELFESTEEM CAUSES FOR LOW SELF ESTEEM Childhood experiences that include being praised Being listened to Being spoken to respectfully Getting attention & hugs Experiencing success in sports or school Having trustworthy friends. or beaten Being ignored Teased Being expected to be “perfect” all the time Experiencing failures in sports or school Being harshly criticized .Contd….
• Facets of Low self-Esteem It is not so easy to recognize low self esteem The three common faces that low self esteem may wear are – The Impostor – pretends to be happy & successful -Lives with a constant fear that he or she will be “found out” -Needs continuous successes to maintain the mask of +ve self esteem The Rebel – acts against the opinions or good will of othersespecially people who are important or powerful-don‟t matter. -Lives with constant anger about not feeling “good enough” -Continuously needs to prove that others‟ judgments & criticisms don‟t hurt .Contd….
. The Loser – acts helpless & unable to cope with the world & waits for someone to come to the rescue. under-achievement.Contd…. & excessive reliance on others in relationships. -Uses self-pity or indifference as a shield against fear of taking responsibility for changing his or her life. which can lead to such problems as lacking assertiveness skills. -Looks constantly to others for guidance.
It reinforces the –ve self image & can take a person into downward spiral of lower & lower self-esteem & increasingly non-productive or even actively self-destructive behavior. loneliness & increased likelihood for depression It can cause problems with friendships & relationships. stree.Contd…. It can seriously impair academic & job performance. . Consequences of Low Self Esteem – It can create anxiety. It can lead to underachievement & increased vulnerability to drug & alcohol abuse.
Measures • to overcome Low self-esteem: First believe that one can change. “I failed the class test. on all the assignments. There are some things here that I don‟t understand as well as I thought I did. Rebut the critic by saying – “ I did poorly on this one test. I don‟t understand anything in class. There are three steps one can take to begin to change one‟s selfesteem: Step 1: Rebut the Inner Critic – challenge the –ve messages of the critical inner voice. . and should be willing to change. but I‟ve done O.Contd….K. I shouldn‟t be taking this course”.
- Components to self-nurturing: Practice Basic Self-Care: enough sleep. healthy food.Contd…. caring for oneself in ways that shows that one is valuable. component. Step 2: Practice Self-Nurturing – treat oneself as a worthwhile person. . regular exercise -Plan Fun & Relaxing Things for yourself -Reward Yourself for Your Accomplishment -Remind Yourself of Your Strengths & Achievements – keep file of certificates & awards where you can see them. deserving & lovable. -Forgive Yourself When You Don’t Do All You’d Hoped -Self-Nurture Even When You Don’t Feel You Deserve It: “Fake it” until you can “make it”.
Contd…. Step 3: Get Help from Others -Ask for support from Friends -Get help from Teachers & Other Helpers -Talk to a Therapist or Counselor .
SELF-EFFICACY According to Albert Bandura.4. . self-efficacy refers to an individual‟s sense of competence or ability in general or in particular domains.
People must perform the task for which they are hired. and must do so in a dependable manner and People must go beyond the dependable role performance & engage in creative.ORGANIZATIONAL ROLES Personal change has a direct impact in an Organization & the roles that individuals play. spontaneous & innovative behaviour at work. People must be attracted not only to the organization but also to remain in it. In a social system an organization has roles with expectations that require individuals to perform certain tasks called job duties. The organizational structure & Individual characteristics need to be matched to become effective. . This matching leads to the evolving of a Role in the organization. Discharge of duties.
Attitudes.Work Structure. member of a club & so on. it becomes a „role‟. Needs. Authority Structure. It has been defined as “a set of Behaviours enacted by a person as a result of his occupying a certain position in the organization. .Contd…. Status Structure. . Individual Characteristics like – Interest. mother. sales person. There are TWO Role Systems – . The organization structure consists of .Role Space – each individuals plays several roles like daughter. Role is a convergence region between the individual & the organization.Role Set – is a pattern of interrelationship between one role among many others. What is given in a organization chart is the position & when the individual occupies a position.
.Making organizational roles effective Role effectiveness depends on: Having high role efficacy on the part of the role occupant and By developing a style & strategy to cope with the Role Conflict or stress.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.