Unit I: Introduction
water. in general) Engineering: Design/ Problem Solving What is Scope of this Course? Learn water treatment (very broad in itself) Why is it necessary to get Clean. (& ambience.Introduction
What is Environmental Engineering? Environment: Air. Drinking
Health concerns Aesthetics
Fire fighting Health & aesthetics concerns Comfort level (due to/absence of planning) Resource planning (water as resource) City Development & future growth…
.. washing. gardens. Irrigation Public uses: fountains.) Industrial: electricity.Necessity of planned water supply
Water Uses: Household (bathing. road cleaning…….. …. drinking.…. boilers. cleaning.
Characteristics of ideal water source
Quantity: sufficient.. (rainfall dependant)
Quality: as good as possible…
Availability: possibly year-round Economics: inexpensive source development Distance: close enough to demand
locations… Intervening area slopes: not too much variation (piping & pumping costs) Elevation: possibly gravity flow.
Sources of water supply
Rivers & streams Lakes & Ponds Impounding/storage Reservoirs Oceans (need desalination. expensive…)
Wells & tube-wells Springs Infiltration wells & galleries
Rain is chief source of surface water in India
Rivers: primary source in India. Solids from bed erosion. clay.. Preferably perennial (year-round supply) Non-perennial: use storage reservoir Quantity: Rainfall dependent Quality: depends on proximity to cities. silt..g. e.
Requires treatment…. Chief Sources of water supply in India
.(inorganic) Organic: vegetation.Surface: Rivers & Streams
Streams: use depends on available quantity. etc.
Older lakes have purer water Still water may have issues (e..g.…. eutrophication—color. Lakes are larger in size than ponds. Quantity: depends on catchment area (area
that drains into a particular basin) Quality: Self-purification due to suspension sedimentation.Surface: Lakes & Ponds
Natural depression filled with water. color bleaching. taste. removal of bacteria... smell.
(removal of inorganic impurities) Addition of organic impurities: algal/microbial growth in still waters
Mass-curve method for Storage capacity determination: Tutorial session
. (generally.Surface: Impounding/Storage reservoirs
Storage/impoundment behind a dam/retaining
wall. multi-purpose design) Quantity: depends on design Quality: generally better
Sedimentation due to storage.
Subsurface: Wells & Tubewells
Wells: Open/Dug wells
Open Well: Open masonry wells.. low discharge (quantity & velocity)
Shallow & Deep: Hand pump.…. back flow (water/air).
Tubewells: Bore-wells (machine bored or
Cavity type & Screen type Higher discharge
Well development: Increasing the well discharge by alternating pumping.
Manikaran Outcrop of water table
1. 3. Sohna. Surface Spring: underlying impervious layer exposes GW to surface.Subsurface: Springs
Natural outflow of water at surface.g. Artesian spring: GW under pressure flows out on its own
. Gravity spring: gravity flow (water table above datum due to elevation changes) 2.. E.
Water extracted through porous pipes.
. through water-bearing strata. shallow tunnels along
river bank. Water stored to a “sump well” and pumped.Subsurface: Infiltration wells & Galleries
Shallow wells along river bank
Open at the bottom
Jack well: receives water from various
More dissolved minerals. good for smaller communities
(few exceptions: Mumbai’s lake supply.Subsurface sources
Quantity: usu.) Quality:
Generally better than surface waters Filtration through the strata: removal of suspended impurities & microbes.. generally Hard water
minimises treatment cost Never in vicinity or downstream of waste discharge location Scope for future expansion Year round withdrawal possibility Easy accessibility Never on curves
.Water Collection: Intake structures
For safe withdrawal of raw water from source over a
given range of pool levels and discharge into withdrawal conduits. Location:
Near treatment plant. minimize conveyance cost In purer water zone.
Simple submerged intake
Intake tower Wet intake tower Dry intake tower
What do you understand by “Environmental
Engineering”? What are the responsibilities of an environmental engineer? Compare & contrast the surface and subsurface sources of water?
Due Date: Jan 23