Hydraulics is based on the fact that liquids are incompressible Hydraulic system is a system where liquid under pressure is used to transmit energy In it a hydraulic pump converts mechanical power to hydraulic power An actuating cylinder converts hydraulic power to mechanical power.


DEVICES USING HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS IN AIRCRAFTS  Gun turrets       Auto pilot Shock absorption systems Dive. etc… . wing flaps. speed and flap brakes Bomb bay doors Doors and hatchways Landing gears. landing.

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION   Governed by Pascal’s law The oil is in contact with both sides of the piston head but at different pressures. High pressure oil may be pumped into either side of the piston head. The selector valve determines to which side of the actuating cylinder the high pressure oil (red colored side) is sent.  .



a place to remove air or foam from liquid. air space for expansion of the oil due to temperature changes etc .  Provides pressure head on the pump. volume changes.RESERVOIR FUNCTIONS  Holds reserve supply oil to account for normal leakage. thermal contraction of oil. emergency supply of oil.

thermal expansion.RESERVOIR CONSTRUCTION  Material: 5052 aluminium  Size: takes into account all oil volumes in operational requirements. etc. due to ease of construction & mounting . leakage.  Shape: domed cylindrical shape.

diaphragm deploys .ACCUMULATORS PRINCIPLE  Gas valve lets in compressed gas at ½ system pressure  Diaphragm pops up & oil is sent through system  When system pressure>accumulator pressure.

ACCUMULATORS USES  Absorbs the shocks due to rapid pressure variations in a hydraulic system  Helps maintain a constant pressure within the hydraulic system  Helps the hydraulic pump under peak pressure loads  It is an emergency source of power  Spherical shape is preferred for accumulators .

POWER PUMPS FUNCTION  Is to change mechanical horsepower to hydraulic horsepower TYPES  Gear pumps: move fluid based upon the number of gear teeth and the volume spacing between gear teeth.  Piston pumps: move fluid by pushing it through the motion of the pistons within the pump .

POWER PUMPS PRINCIPLES OF GEAR PUMPS  The liquid from the reservoir is pushed between the gear teeth.  The oil is moved around to the other side by the action of the drive gear itself and sent through the pressure line. .

POWER PUMPS PRINCIPLES OF RECIPROCATING PISTON PUMP  As the cylinder block rotates.  As the block rotates from bottom dead center. space between the block and the pistons increase. letting in more oil. the reverse occurs and the pistons push oil out through the outlet .

forcing the excess liquid in .  When the pressure increases.SYSTEM RELIEF VALVE PRINCIPLE  The adjustment screw is set for a certain pressure value P2. the poppet will move up.

. the oil goes through passage D into the center chamber back to the reservoir.Douglass Pressure Regulator   high pressure oil from the power pump opens valve C and also act on piston A piston A pushes Ball B off seat D.


Selector Valves   Position (1) is the position of the selector valve. for example. upon the extension of the landing gear or the lowering of flaps. Position (2) is the position of the selector valve upon retraction of the landing gear or the raising of the flaps .

motion occurs unevenly. during wing sweep back or sweep forward. To synchronize wing sweep back or sweep forward flow equaliser used flow equalizer is made up of two power pumps placed side by side in which the drive gears of both pumps are connected .FLOW EQUALISER    If wing air loads on one wing are greater than on other.

ACTUATION CYLINDER    The function is to take the pressure & hydraulic fluid flow & change them into linear or rotary motion. Single piston double rod is an equal displacement cylinder used in aileron system or automatic guidance system Double piston-double rod actuating cylinder used in bomb bay doors .

It is reliable. it is not much of a fire hazard. It can be easily maintained. It can develop practically unlimited force or torque. either it works or doesn't. It is dead beat.ADVANTAGES       It is lighter in weight than alternate existing systems. . that is. It is not a shock hazard. there is an absence of sloppiness in its response to demands placed on the system.

CONCLUSION Hydraulic systems determine flight worthiness. . usability and reliabity.

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