Amine Gas Sweetening

 Gas Sweetening Property

Processes are employed to remove the acid gases from the inlet stream in a gas Stronger than Type of Base Very Strong Weak processing plant. TEA Type of Amine Primary Secondary Tertiary  Troublesome components in produced natural gas Solution strength(in water), include:reacts with water15-20 to 25-35 30-45 wt.% a.H2S form acidic gas Ability to selectively No No Yes b.CO2 H2S and CO2 absorbed Acid gas loading, mole/mole The Amines 0.3-0.35 0.3-0.35 0.5-1 (carbon steel)  The term amine refers to an alkaline compound, Circulation rates Lowest > MEA used in a water solution, that can chemically tie-up and remove acid gas molecules (H 2 S and CO 2 ) Vaporization Losses Highest Less volatile Low from a natural gas stream. Lesser than Corrosive Action Very High Least MEA various The table shows the differences in the

wt.Amine Gas Sweetening DGA DIPA The AminesAmine  DGA Property MDEA in the second group of amines can be used for both dehydration and gas sweetening. Type of Base Very Stronger Weak The table shows the differences in the various Strong than amines MDEA Type of Amine Primary Secondary Tertiary Solution strength(in 65-70 30 water).% Ability to selectively No No Yes absorbed H2S and CO2 Degraded by COS Yes Yes No and CS2 .

it would take more heat to regenerate these salts which means higher operating costs. An example of this reaction when the amine used is MEA: Amine sulfide and amine carbamate are the two water soluble salts HOCH 2 CH in the contactor.Amine Gas Sweetening Amine Chemistry conditions which favour both the trays or packing in the These reactions take place on reactions are: a. amine portion of theCO 2 + H 2 O ----------→ Amine carbamate + H 2 O H2S/CO2 HOCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 + an absorption process produces heat Amine acid gas reaction CO 2 + H 2 O ----------→ HOCH 2 CH 2 exothermically. This heat of reaction is needed in the rich solution in NH 3 + HCO 3 The order for the reverse reaction.  Amine + Hreaction will occur at about 116 ⁰CH 2 the sulfide and the reversed 2 S ----------→ Amine sulfide + for O 149 ⁰C for the carbamate reaction. they break apart in the regenerator to form the acid gases again. Forward reaction temperature of 38⁰C contactor: b. that are formed2 NH 2 + H 2 S ----------→ HOCH 2 CH 2 NH 3 + HS Selective amines absorb practically all the H 2 S but leave a sizable  Amine + CO 2 behind. . If the amine salts are more heat-stable.  The amine salts become unstable when heated.

Amine Gas Sweetening  Amine Sweetening Process The design of amine sweetening plants consists of two general sections that are the "sweetening" section and the "regeneration" section The monoethanolamine and diethanolamine sweetening processes are similar in their flow schemes and operations. .

The heating medium flow is adjusted depending on the lean amine H 2 S concentration. but still about 5-8°C warmer than the 1. 2. 1. The amine section.The temperature Chemical process of the lean two separate segments:as can be in amine solution should be low as possible. The two operating variables to adjust in controlling stripper operation: 1. Desorption or stripping strength. strength sets the minimum possible H 2 S content of the sweet gas. Adjust the amine solution in the regeneration solution 2. Amine . incoming gas.The flow of heating medium to the reboiler. Absorption in the contactor (absorber). It is adjusted in the regeneration section of the amine system by the addition of water or amine to the system.Amine Gas Sweetening   Absorber Principles Process Basics These variables are: gas sweetening is a chemical process.

Amine Gas Sweetening Amine Unit Process Description  Gas Flow .

Amine Gas Sweetening  Amine Solution Flow .

Amine Contactor -Basic Configuration Contactor operates at high temperature and low pressure .  Outlet Scrubber The outlet scrubber is a two-phase separator and it recovers amine solution that has been carried over from the contactor and return it to the amine system.Major Equipment  Inlet Scrubber Amine Gas Sweetening (Cont.) The primary purpose of the inlet scrubber is to remove liquids from the sour inlet gas.

. Regenerator The acid gas is removed from the rich amine in the regenerator to produce lean amine at the bottom of the regenerator. Lean/Rich Amine Exchangers The rich/lean exchanger is a heat conservation device where hot lean solvent preheats cooler rich solvent.) The flash tank is used to “degas” the rich amine coming from the high pressure contactor.Major Equipment Rich Amine Flash Tank Amine Gas Sweetening (Cont.

Amine Gas Sweetening (Cont. Regenerator Bottom and Reboiler This is either a direct-fired firetube type. Regenerator Water Make-Up Continuous loss of water from the system is normal hence water must be continually added. indirect hot oil or steam heated unit and it provides the steam necessary for stripping. Circulation Pump The reflux and booster pumps are normally centrifugal. This is done with a lean amine cooler.) Major Equipment Regenerator Reflux Circuit This vessel separates the reflux water and water-saturated acid gases. cabin heater. . inline or horizontal pumps Lean Amine Cooler Required for further cooling of lean amine before it flows into the contactor.

Failure to Sweeten 2.Troubleshooting The three common classes of operational problems which are: 1.Solution Losses Amine Gas Sweetening (Cont.) .Solution Foaming 3.

Dpends on Amine type. Solution Foaming Poor Solution Condition Solution losses Sudden loss of the contactor bottom level Swinging liquid levels Amine carryover into the contactor outlet scrubber Sudden sharp increase in contactor differential pressure Contactor Problems Hydrocarb on condensati on in the amine High residual H2S Amine circulation rate too high Damaged or plugged regenerator trays Poor maintena nce of solution Mechanical eg: carryover Chemical and Thermal Degradation caused by oxygen contact and other components of sour gas Solution foaming Tray flooding Problems with reboiler Leak in lean/rich exchanger Vapourization Losses. MEA>DEA .Troubleshootin g comes about Failure to Sweeten Frequent checks for leaks should be made and leak repair done.

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