This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Objectives of this lesson: Primary and Secondary Data • Define secondary and primary data • Describe primary data collection methods • Describe sampling techniques • Identify advantages disadvantages of different data gathering techniques • Construct a survey .
WHY? • Because you want to find out what is already known about a subject before you dive into your own investigation.Secondary Data • Data gathered by another source (e. WHY? • Because some of your questions can possibly have been already answered by other investigators or authors. survey. Why “reinvent the wheel”? .g. interview) • Secondary data is gathered BEFORE primary data. research study.
Primary Data • Data never gathered before • Advantage: find data you need to suit your purpose • Disadvantage: usually more costly and time consuming than collecting secondary data • Collected after secondary data is collected .
.selecting and surveying respondents (research participants) from the population.Sampling Techniques Population . Populations are too costly and time consuming to study in entirety. Sample .total group of respondents that the researcher wants to study.
different areas (cities) All are selected randomly.different groups (ages) – cluster sample .anyone – stratified sample . .Sampling Techniques A probability sample is one that gives every member of the population a known chance of being selected. – simple random sample .
• convenience sample . It is not selected randomly.maintain representation .readily available • quota sample .Sampling Techniques A non-probability sample is an arbitrary grouping that limits the use of some statistical tests.
computer. mail. • Non-personal survey – on site.one-on-one survey with respondents • Company records – internal document survey research . panel • Personal interview .controlled variables and respondent groups.actually view respondents • Experiment . fax.Primary Research Methods • Focus Groups – bring together respondents with common characteristics • Observation . telephone.
somewhat agree. yes/no. dichotomous – offer two either/or responses (true/false.Constructing the Questionnaire Select the correct types of questions: • open ended – harder to score but get “richer” information • closed ended. for/against • multiple choice – select one or more than one • scaled response – gather range of “values” (strongly disagree. strongly agree . neutral. somewhat disagree.
1. Have you had any of the following medical preventive tests/exams? _____ mammogram (if a women) _____ prostate exam (if a man) _____ lung x-ray _____ electrocardiogram _____ stress test .
Do you currently smoke? _____ YES _____ NO .2.
3. Please evaluate the following statement: I understand the University’s code of conduct as it relates to plagiarism. ____absolutely agree ____somewhat agree ____neutral ____somewhat disagree ____absolutely disagree .
when necessary.. • Guarantee anonymity • Ensure ease of tabulation – Scantron forms • Ask well-phrased and unambiguous questions that can be answered • Develop for completeness – get all the data • Pilot test the instrument Important characteristics of good questionnaires .• Plan a user-friendly format • Gather demographic data – age. gender. etc.
and • a reminder to participants that they are taking the survey anonymously. Remember.Assignment Prepare a questionnaire (word processed on paper) that you utilized to gather the primary data for the formal report case. you should include on the survey: • an introductory statement about the purpose of the survey. • a motivational reason why customers should take it. • The questionnaire will be inserted as an appendix at the end of your formal report. You should NOT include on the survey: • answer percentages .
ensure anonymity . Please respond to the following survey items by checking the appropriate response next to each question/item.purpose of the survey Introductory Statement The purpose of this survey is to help management identify family issues that our employees experience that are related to job performance. Your responses are completely anonymous and will only be used to assess overall employee characteristics.