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# Presented By Harsha Thomas S2 M.

Tech

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Zero-crossing is a commonly used term in electronics, mathematics, sound, and image processing. In mathematical terms, a "zero-crossing" is a point where the sign of a function changes (e.g. from positive to negative), represented by a crossing of the axis (zero value) in the graph of the function. In electronics, the zero-crossing is the instantaneous point at which there is no voltage present. In a sine wave or other simple waveform, this normally occurs twice during each cycle.
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Provides an efficient method for reconstructing a bandlimited signal in the discrete domain from its crossings. The method makes it possible to design A/D converters that only deliver the crossings, which are then used to interpolate the input signal at arbitrary instants. Potentially, it may allow for reductions in power consumption and complexity in these converters.

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Sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal. Sampler produces samples equivalent to the instantaneous value of the continuous signal at the desired points.

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Convolution with pulse creates replicas at pulse location This tells us that the impulse train modulator Creates images of the Fourier transform of the input signal Images are periodic with sampling frequency If s< N sampling maybe irreversible due to aliasing of images

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Transmit the digital samples from one point to another, using digital electronics, rather than analog electronics. Disadvantages: Introduces distortion, because we have limited resolution on the ADC and have limited frequency of sample rate.

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## Audio signal classification.

The zero-crossing rate (ZCR) provides a rough estimate of the frequency content of a signal in time-domain at low computational cost. Thus, the ZCR has been widely used in many signal processing applications such as: 1) spectral estimation, 2) voice activity detection, 3) voiced/unvoiced speech discrimination, 4) speech recognition, 5) audio sound classification, fluid mechanics, 6) Doppler frequency estimation, and 7) time-delay estimation

The distribution of ZCRs is used for speech and music discrimination. The number of zero-crossings is strongly related with dominant frequency of a signal.

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## Zero crossing based spectrum analyzer:

Spectrum analysers are used for measuring the distribution of signal energy in frequency. zero-based spectrum analyzer determines the DFT coefficients of the signal from the zero axis crossings of the signal rather than from its amplitude samples. The zero-based approach requires no sampling and quantization.

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Representation of time-limited bandpass signal by discrete frequency values. The locations along the frequency axis at which the fourier transform of the signal cross zero level. Sum-of-Sincs model is used. Signal is reconstructed by solving eigen value problem.

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Key idea is to relate fourier coefficients to zero crossings of the fourier transform of the signal. Fourier transform of the signal is computed using filter banks.

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X(t) has been obtained by windowing a bandpass signal s(t) using window function w(t). Fourier transform of x(t):

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## Obtain delayed version of x(t).

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The real part of the delayed signal shows more number of axis crossings . Number of additional zero-crossings depends on time delay. Obtain periodic extension of the signal.

Window the periodic extension by a rectangular window whose frequency domain representation contains sinc functions.
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Determine zero crossings. Determine fourier coefficients using eigen value problem. Signal can be reconstructed using finite Fourier series.

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The analog-to-discrete (A/D) conversion is the first step for the discrete-time processing of continuous signals. This conversion is fundamentally based on the Sampling Theorem. Encoding using zero-crossings provide a way to convert an analog signal into discrete values using SOS model.

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1)

R. Kumaresan , Encoding bandpass signals using zero/level crossings : A model based approach, IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process., vol. 18, no. 1, jan 2010.

2)

R. Kumaresan and Y. Wang, On the relationship between line spectrum pairs and zero-crossings of band-pass signals, IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 458461, May 2001.
S. M. Kay and R. Sudhaker, A zero crossing-based spectrum analyzer, IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process., vol. ASSP-34, no. 1, pp. 96104, Jan. 1986. D. Kim, S. Lee, and R. Kil, Auditory processing of speech signals for robust speech recognition in real-world noisy environments, IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 5569, Jan. 1999.
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THANK YOU

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## Fourier series expansion for

where and are Fourier coefficients. The integers M and N are such that M and N is bandlimited to

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Window

by a rectangular window

is

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## where is the Fourier transform of convolution operation. is given by:

and * denote

where and denote the real and imaginary parts of respectively and they are frequency domain sinc functions.
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## The real and imaginary parts of and , respectively.

is denoted as

Since and are expressed as a linear combination of shifted versions of the Sinc functions, the model is called SOS model.
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are the locations along the frequency axis at which the real part is zero. , k = 1,2,,q are the locations corresponding to
k = 1,2,.,p

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## c contains unknown Fourier coefficients.

The submatrices and have p and q rows, respectively. c is a unique vector in the null space of X. Estimate the vector of Fourier coefficients c by minimizing the quadratic form: .

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The solution vector c is the eigenvector of XTX corresponding to its smallest eigenvalue. Fourier transform of delayed signal Fourier coefficients reconstruct the signal using Fourier series.

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