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BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORIES

Learning is a relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes.

Maturation is a change that occurs as a result of genetic programming, given the normal range of environment.

Theories of Learning are sets of conjectures and hypotheses that explain the process of learning or how learning takes place.

Behavioral Theories of Learning Concentrates on actual behavior and bases conclusions on observations of external manifestations of learning.

Behavioral Theories of Learning 1.Ivan Pavlovs Classical Conditioning 2.Edward Lee Thorndikes Connectionism 3.Burrhus Frederick Skinners Reinforcement and Operant Conditioning 4.Albert Banduras Social Observational Learning

IVAN PAVLOVS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY OF LEARNING

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses. Using its principles, organisms can be trained to react involuntarily to a stimulus that previously had no effect or had a very different effect on them.

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING


Neutral Stimulus not connected to a response. Unconditioned Stimulus automatically produces a response. Unconditioned Response naturally occurring responses. Conditioned Stimulus evokes a response after conditioning occur. Conditioned Response learned response to a previously neural stimulus.

WHY DO ORGANISMS BECOME CLASSICALLY CONDITIONED?


Temporal Contiguity mere closeness in time between the CS and the UCS explains conditioning. Contingency dependence of one action or event on the presence of a stimulus.

PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING


ACQUISITION process by which an organism learns an association through pairing of a neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus to bring out a response. STIMULUS GENERALIZATION process of giving similar response to stimuli that resemble the original stimulus. STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION process of giving different responses to different stimuli.

PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING


EXTINCTION process of disappearance of learned response. SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY process in which the learned response returns.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING


Avoid classically emotions. conditioned negative

Help students to risk anxiety-producing situations voluntarily and successfully. Link learning with positive emotions. Help students recognize differences and similarities among situations so that they can discriminate and generalize appropriately.

EDWARD LEE THORNDIKES CONNECTIONISM THEORY

Connectionism states that learning takes place through bonds or connections that are formed between the stimulus and response. These connections occur mainly through trial and error. Learning happens through selecting and connecting.

THREE LAWS OF LEARNING


LAW OF READINESS learning easily takes place if the individual is already biologically and physiologically ready. LAW OF EXERCISE learning takes place through practice and repetition. LAW OF EFFECT learning takes place if it is followed by a satisfactory state because the strength of connection is increased.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF CONNECTIONISM


Do not force the child to go to school when readiness is not visible yet. Produce many exercises for each lesson and give praises or recognitions for correct answers. Students who are not participating actively or those who frequently obtains mistakes should be noticed and counselling skills should be given.

BURRHUS FREDERICK SKINNERS OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY

Operant Conditioning/Instrumental Learning-- states that learning occurs through rewards and punishments of active behavior. Voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents.

OPERANT CONDITIONING CONCEPTS


Operants voluntary behaviors emitted by organisms. Antecedents events that precede an action. Consequences events that follow an action. Reinforcement use of consequences to strengthen behavior. Reinforcer any event that follows a behavior and increases the chances that the behavior will occur again.

OPERANT CONDITIONING CONCEPTS


Types of Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement strengthening behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior. Negative Reinforcement strengthening behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when the behavior occurs. Premack principle a more preferred activities reinforces those that are less preferred.

OPERANT CONDITIONING CONCEPTS


Punishment involves suppressing behavior. decreasing or

Presentation Punishment decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by presenting an aversive stimulus following a behavior. Removal Punishment decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by removing a pleasant stimulus following the behavior.

OPERANT CONDITIONING CONCEPTS


Schedules pattern by behavior. of Reinforcement certain which reinforcement follow

Continuous Reinforcement reinforcement always follow a particular desired behavior. Partial Reinforcement (Intermittent Reinforcement) desired behavior is reinforced only some of the time.

OPERANT CONDITIONING CONCEPTS


Types of Partial Reinforcement Ratio Schedule certain number of the desired operant is reinforced without the passage of time. Interval Schedule occurs at definite established time intervals.

OPERANT CONDITIONING CONCEPTS


Four Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement depends on definite number of responses. Variable Ratio Reinforcement number of responses needed for reinforcement varies from one reinforcement to the next. Fixed Interval Reinforcement a response results in reinforcement after a definite length of time. Variable Interval Reinforcement reinforcement depends on time and

PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING


BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION changing students behavior by managing contingencies or consequences of that behavior. EXTINCTION learned response disappear if not reinforced. would

SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATIONS involves rewarding behavior that comes closer and closer to the desired behavior.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING


When students respond, try to react to their behavior as quickly as possible. Work with what students say or do and reinforce or punish that behavior in an attempt to shape their behavior in the desired direction. Control the reinforcers.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING


Be sure to make students understand why they are being reinforced or punished. If applied, apply them to specific behaviors. Gradually reduce reinforcerment. Provide warning punishment. cues before applying

Consider appropriate modifications of the environment.

ALBERT BANDURAS SOCIAL/OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING

Social/Observational Learning states that learning takes place through observation and imitation of others. Social Cognitive Theory adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs, selfperceptions, and expectations to social learning theory.

WHAT HAPPENS AS A RESULT OF OBSERVING OTHERS?


Observation of models may acquire new responses. Observation of models may strengthened or weakened every existing response. Observation of models may cause the reappearance of responses that were apparently forgotten.

ENACTIVE vs. VICARIOUS LEARNING


Enactive Learning learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions. Vicarious Learning learning by observing others.

ELEMENTS OF OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING


Attention in order to learn through observation, we have to pay attention. Retention to imitate the behavior, it has to be remembered. Production remembered behavior is performed and smoothen by practice. Motivation and Reinforcement incentives or motivation helps individuals perform behavior.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING


Teach students behaviors you want them to acquire using storytelling, modelling, cooperative learning, group process/group dynamics. Strengthen or weaken inhibitions to actions. Direct attention towards what is important. Convey enthusiasm for positive behaviors and show repulsion to inappropriate behaviors.