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Yaji Sripada

What are Time Series? How to analyse time series?

Pre-processing Trend analysis Pattern analysis

Introduction

What are Time Series?

Values of a variable measured at different time points Many domains have tons of time series

Time series reveal temporal behaviour of the underlying mechanism that produced the data

Meteorology weather simulations predict values of dozens of weather parameters such as temperature and rainfall at hourly intervals Gas turbines carry hundreds of sensors to measure parameters such as fuel intake and rotor temperature every second Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) measure physiological data such as blood pressure and heart rate every second

Values and Their corresponding timestamps (the time at which the values are true)

Dept. of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen 4

Autocorrelation is a special property of time series

Each value of a time series is correlated to older values from the same series This means, data measurements in a time series are not independent Periodic patterns seen on the gas turbine plot in the previous slide are results of autocorrelation

Time series analysis is special because of this temporal dependency among values of a series

A time series exhibits internal structure

Three main steps

Pre-processing Trend analysis Pattern analysis

Preprocessing

Knowledge acquisition studies provide the guidance to determine the required steps Input raw series may be noisy

Due to errors in measurement or observation

Data needs to be smoothed to remove noise Many noise removal techniques also known as filters such as

Moving averages or mean filter Median filter

Example Series

Time 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 X 32 33 30 34 29 32 33

3.5

4.0 4.5 5.0

31

30 28 34 Dept. of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen 7

Time 0 0.5 1.0 X 32 33 30 Rate of change 0 2 -6

1.5

2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

34

29 32 33 31 30 28 34 Dept. of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

8

-10 6 2 -4 -2 -4 12 8

Mean Filter

There are many versions Our version ( weighted average method)

Assume a window time size, T for the filter dT difference in time between two successive values For each value in the series, compute

Current smoothed value =((previous smoothed value * T) + (current value*dT))/(T+dT)

Smoothing

Time 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 X 32 33 30 34 29 32 33 31 30 28 34 Smoothed X 32 32.2 31.76 31.21 31.57 31.65 31.92 31.74 31.39 30.71 31.37 Rate of change 0 0.4 0.88 0.9 -1.28 0.16 0.54 0.36 0.70 -1.76 1.32 10

Median Filter

The idea is similar to Mean filter Instead of using mean we use median Note: in our version of the mean we did not compute a simple mean (average) of the selected values We used a weighted average Known to perform better in the presence of outliers

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Trend Analysis

Trends can be established using

line fitting techniques for linear data curve fitting techniques for non-linear data

Line Fitting techniques for time series more popularly called segmentation techniques Many segmentation algorithms

Sliding window Top-down Bottom-up and Others (genetic algorithms, wavelets, etc)

All segmentation algorithms have different flavours of implementation within the main method Segmentation in general can be viewed as a search

for a best possible combination of segments in a space of all the possible segments

Dept. of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

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Segmentation

The curve at the top shows the original time series The next graphic is the piecewise linear representation or segmented version of it Segmented version of the time series is an approximation of the original series In other words, segmentation may involve loss of information in addition to the loss of noise

Dept. of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen 13

One important parameter controlling the segmentation process is the error tolerance value It is the amount of error that can be allowed in the segmented representation If the value of ETV is zero segmentation returns a segmented representation without any information loss Large enough values of ETV make segmentation to return one segment losing all the information contained in the original signal in the segmentation process Specification of ETV is linked to the distinction of information and noise

In a particular context For a particular task Corresponds to the allowed information loss

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Cost Computation

All segmentation algorithms need a method to compute the cost of segmentation Several possible techniques:

Simply take maximum error in a segment Compute the total error in a segment Compute the least square error

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This algorithm is suitable for segmenting time series obtained in real time (streaming time series) Requirements

Develop a method for computing the cost of merging adjacent segments Select two parameters

an appropriate window size and Error tolerance value

The method

1. Form a segment with the values of the input series falling in the window 2. Compute the cost of the segment 3. while the cost of the segment is below the error tolerance value 4. When a segment cannot grow any more store it in the segmented representation and continue at step 1 with a new segment

Grow the segment by moving the window forward in the series

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Bottomup Segmentation

Empirical evaluation studies with all segmentation algorithms suggest that the bottom-up algorithm is the best Requirements

Because it provides a globally optimized segmented representation

Develop a method for computing the cost of merging adjacent segments Select an appropriate error tolerance value Begin by creating n/2 segments joining adjacent points in a nlength time series Compute the cost of merging adjacent segments Iteratively merge the lowest cost pair until a stopping criterion is met

The stopping criterion is based on error tolerance value

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Hour 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 24:00 Wind Speed 4.0 6.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 15.0 18.0

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Segmentation Model

20 18 16 14

Wind Speed

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 6 9 12 15 Time 18 21 24

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Pattern Analysis

What is a pattern?

A portion of the series that can be identified as a unit rather than as enumeration of all the values in that portion Some patterns may be periodic they repeat at regular time intervals (autocorrelation) E.g. Spikes and oscillations in gas turbine data

Users are interested in patterns occurring in time series Mainly two steps

Pattern location Pattern classification

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Most patterns are classified based on the visual shape of the pattern E.g. A step pattern looks like a step When the time scale changes the visual shape of a pattern changes

Pattern classification sensitive to the time scale at which visualization is shown

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Latest trend in mining time series

Convert numerical time series into an equivalent symbolic representation

Symbolic Aggregate Approximation (SAX) is a well known representation Efficient algorithms available for doing this transformation Once a time series is available in string form

String analysis techniques can be used for analysing time series data

baabccbc

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Summary

Time Series are Ubiquitous! Three main data analysis steps

Pre-processing

smoothing

Trend analysis

Line fitting

Pattern analysis

Location and classification Issues due to time scale

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