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Engineering Material

Ir.Soeweify, M.Eng

Head of Strength and Structure Groups


Department of Shipbuilding Engineering
Surabaya Institute of Technology

Welding Engineer 1980 Hiroshima University


Welding Inspector 1984 Hamburg University
Fracture Mechanic 1990 Bandung Institute of
Technology
Engineering Materials

• Metals
• Polimers
• Ceramics
• Glasses
• Elastomers
• Composite
Metal

• High moduli Elastisity


• Can be made strong by alloying,
mechanical process, and heat
treatment, but they remain ductile.
• Least resistance to corrosion
• High strength still use, even the
ductility decrease more than 2 %
• Easy to machining and joining.
Ceramic and glases
• High moduli
• But unlike metal they are brittle
• The tension strength is the fracture
strength, in compression is brittle crushing
strength which is about 15 time larger.
• Low tolerance of stress concentration
( hole, crack ) and high contact stress
( Clamp )
• Stiff and hard abrasion resistance so used
in bearing and cutting tools.
• Retain their strength to high temperatur
and low corrosion well
Polimer and Elastomer
• The moduli from low to high
• Elastic deflection can be large
• Creep in the room temperature
• No have useful strength above 200º C
• Easy to shape, complicated part can be
moulded.
• Making assembly fast and cheap
• Corrosion resistance, low coef friction,
• Good design exploits these properties
Composite
• Combine the attractive properties of other
classes of material while avoiding some of
drawbacks ( demerit )
• They are light,stiff and strong,and can be
tought.
• Most of composite available to the
engineering reinforce by fibre glas, carbon
or kevlar.
• Cannot be use more than 250º C because
polimer matrix will soften.
Material Properties
• Phisically properties
– Melting temperatur
– Conductifity
– Density etc
• Processable properties
– Machinability
– Castability
– Weldability etc
• Mechanical properties
– Strength
– Fracture toughness
– Hardness etc
Definition of material
properties
• Density ρ units Kg/m3
• Elastic modulus GN/m2 or GPa The
slope of the linear elastic part of the
stress strain curve Young Modulus E
for the tension and compression,
Shear Modulus G for shear
loading.Bulk Modulus K for
hydrostatic pressure
• Poison’s ratio ν it is negative ratio of
the lateral strain ε2 / ε1 in axial
Steel selection for Boiler and
Pressure vessel
• Strength and ductility
– Mechanical Properties
• Tensile strength
• Yield Strength
• Elongation
• Reduction 0f Area
• Fracture Strength
– Fracture Toughness
• K Parameter
– Noch toughness
• Impact value
• Transition brittle to ductile .
Steel selection for Boiler and
Pressure vessel
• Fatigue Strength
– Fatigue limit
• S-N Diagram
– Crack grow rate
• dA/dN
• Corrosion Resistance
– Rate of corrosion
– Stress corrosion cracking
Stress Strain Diagram

• Mechanical Properties
Stress strain diagram
Mechanical properties

•σ, ultimate = P ultimate / Ao


[ N/mm2 ]
•σ, Yield = P yield /Ao [ N/mm2 ]
•ε, Elongation = ( Li – Lo ) / Lo [ % ]
• Ra, Reduc.of Area = ( Ao – Ai ) /Ao
[%]
• E,modulus Elastisity σ / ε [ N/mm2]
• R, Resilience = ½ σ ε [ J/mm3 ]
Stress strain for britlle
material
Stress Strain curve

• For ceramic
Stress Strain Diagram

• Polimer
• Glasses
Operation Load
• Static Load
– Tension σ, tensile
– Bending σ, bending
– Shear G shear stength
– Torsion
• Dynamic Load
– Impact load Impact value
– Fatigue Load Fatigue strength
• Combine load
– Static load, tension and bending
– Dynamic load, fatigue in tension and
bending
Impact value

• Dynamic test ( load )


• Impact value [ Joule ] ( 3 specimens
)
– Parameter for fatigue strength
– Parameter for ductile material
• Transition temp ( 10 specimens )
– 50 % Brittle, 50 % Ductile
– Low temp to high temperature
– More higher transition temp more better
Standard Charpy Impact
Specimen
Placement of charpy specimen
Impact testing machine
Transition temperature
Ductile and brittle fracture
Ductile and Brittle
charactristic
• Brittle material
– Fracture by cleveage
– Fracture surface Perpendiculair to the force
– No deformation
– High hardness
– High crack growth rate
• Ductile material
– Fracture by micro voit coalesence
– Fracture surface 45 degree to the force
– Some deformation
– Lower hardness
– Lower crack growth rate
Fracture Toughness Test

• Centre crack specimen


Specimen for fracture test
Specimens extracted from
plate
Specimens extracted from disk
Hardness brinell test

Hardness brinell used steel ball HB


Hardness Vickers use diamont HV
Hardness Rockwell used ball and diamont
HRB,HRC
Parameters of fatigue
strength
• S-N Diagram
– Fatigue strength
– Final fracture
– Unfracture
– Some amount specimens
– No calculation just plotted
• dA/dN versus Stress intensity ( Δ K )
– Crack growth rate
– Crack propagation
– A certain cyrcle
– Only one specimen
– Need some calculation to the final diagram
Fatigue Crack Growth Under
CA Loading

N.E.Dowling, Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, F-11.7,P-465


Modulus of Rupture

• Tri point bending test


Loss coeffisient in Stress Strain
cycle
Thermal conductivity

• Flux heat
Thermal expansion Coef

• Heating the sample


Creep rupture

• Statically and constant loading


Wearing test

• Archard wear contant


Corrosion test
• Surface corrosion
Heat treatment terms
• Annealing
– A generik term denoting the threatment,
consisting of heating to and holding at suitable
temperature followed by cooling at suitable
rate, used primary to soften metalic material
but also to simultanuously produce desire
change in other properties or in microstructure
to improve of machineability,cold work,
mechanical or electrical or increase in stability
of dimension
• Annealing time
– Time elapsing while holding a piece at
annealing temperatur
Several heat treatment of
steel
• Quenching
– Rapid cooling after heating to harden the steel
• Tempering
– Reheating a quench hardened or normalized ferro alloy
to e temperature bellow the transformation rangeand
than cooling at any desired rate.
• Normalizing
– Heating a ferrous alloy to suaitable temp above the
transformation temp range and than cooling in air to a
temperature substantially bellow the temp trans temp
range
• Annealing
– Heating to and holding at a suitable temp followed by
cooling to soften material or to change the other
properties