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Maria Camila Forero Maria Camila Marin Angela Mugno Nicolas Vera Miguel Ruiz Maria Alejandra Muñoz

* Fermentation technology is the oldest of
all biotechnological processes. The term is derived from the Latin verb fevere, to boil * The appearance of fruit extracts or malted grain acted upon by yeast, during the production of alcohol. * Fermentation is a process of chemical change by organisms or their products, usually producing effervescence and heat. * Microbiologists consider fermentation as any process for the production of a product by means of mass culture of micro organisms'


* * It is assume that in the Neolitic period beer was pruduce because there were found beer jars. C wine and beer were produce and drink. the years 7.000 B.C in China there were wine wars .000 to 6. * In Mesopotamia between * By the 7000 B.

2000 BC.500 B. C. beer and bread * In egypt they used A beverage distilled from rice meal known as Sura between 3000 BC .* In the 3. first alcoholic drink was obtained which was made by fermenting honey with alcohol. However. the egipcians evidence in draws the produccion of wine. wine was produce and also into religious rituals * In Greece in 2000 BC the . by 1700 BC.

Cauim this were the official beverages of Latinamerica ancient civilicizations one of the main ingredients was saliva. pulque or octli. . chichi.* Mezcal. beer.

2. Usually yeast metabolizes the sugar (glucose) to produce 2 compounds.* 1. 3. . Breakdown sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. ethanol and carbon dioxide Glucose divides into 2 pyruvate then Acetalhyde to finally become ethanol.

are collected in the condensate. . including water.4. 5. So there have to be distillation. esters. The dilute solution of ethanol its heated and components other than ethanol. which account for the flavor of the beverage. and other alcohols. The alcoholic fermentation cant not go higher than 10-14% or yeast will die.

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depending on the region traditionally barley. The key to the beer making process is malted grain. using a process based on a simple formula. wheat or sometimes rye.• All around the world beers are brewed. .

( notably alfa-amylase and betaamylase) which will be involved in converting the starch in the grain into sugar. It is important to mention that this process can not be done at home. . amount of roasting. The germination process creates a number of enzymes. after which it is then dried in a oven and sometimes roasted.* The Malt is made by * Depending on the allowing a grain to germinate. the malt will take on dark colour and strongly influence the colour and flavor of the beer.

4. Filtering. 2. Lautering. Filling. Fermenting. 3.* This work is basically divided in 7 steps that are : 1. Mashing. 6. 7. . 5. Boiling. Conditioning.

and heating this mixture up with rests at certain temperatures allows the enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain and become sugars. .* * In this process of mixing milled grain (usually malted grain) with water. which is called maltose.

. during which the extract is separated in an undiluted state from the spent grains. in which extract which remains with the grains is rinsed off with hot water.* • In this second step consists of the separation of the extracts won during mashing from the spent grain. a plateand-frame filter designed for this kind of separation. Lautering has two stages: the first one is the wort run-off. a wide vessel with a false bottom. and sparging. It is achieved in either a lauter tun.

including the spent grains. then plates. with plates at each end of the structure. Newer mash filters have bladders that can press the liquid out of the grains between spargings. The plates contain a support structure for the filter cloth. and filter cloths are arranged in a carrier frame like so: frame. where the empty frames contain the mash.• The mash filter is a plate-and-frame filter. . cloth. cloth. and have a capacity of around one hectoliter. frames. plate. where the grain does not act like a filtration medium in a mash filter.

flavor. in its last part the vapors produced during the boil volatilize off flavors.* • Boiling the won extracts. and an special aroma compound the to beer. ensures its infertility. . and. that are called wort. including dime thyl sulfide precursors. along with the heat of the boil. causes proteins in the wort to clot and the pH of the wort to fall. and it does prevents a lot of infections that may appear . • Finally. which contribute bitterness. During the boil hops are added.

and volume of wort the brewer expects to evaporate. the hop addition schedule. The boil lasts between 50 and 120 minutes.* The boil must be conducted so that is it even and intense. depending on its intensity. .

starts as rapidly as yeast is added to the cooled wort. The cones usually open to a 60° angle that will allow the yeast to flow toward the cones apex. also is at this point where the product is first called beer. Finally . It is during this stage that sugars won from the malt are metabolized into alcohol and carbon dioxide. CCTs can handle both fermenting and conditioning in the same tank. from enormous tanks which can look like storage silos. the yeast and other solids which have fallen to the cones apex can be simply flushed out a port at the apex. have a conical bottom and a cylindrical top. or CCTs. but is not so steep as to take up too much vertical space. to five gallon glass carboys in a home brewer's closet. Tanks of fermentation come in all sorts of forms. (In a modern talk )as a step in the brewing process.* Fermentation. . Most breweries today use cylindroconical tanks.

.After high kraeusen a bung device (German: Spundapparat) is often put on the tanks to allow the CO2 produced by the yeast to naturally carbonate the beer. the more carbonated the beer becomes. This bung device can be set to a given pressure to match the type of beer being produced. The more pressure the bung holds back.

time pressure is maintained on the tanks to prevent the beer from going flat. During period. which encourages settling of the yeast. the beer is cooled to around freezing. the fermentation decreases and the yeast starts to settle to the bottom of the tank. .* • At this point sugars in the fermenting beer have been almost completely digested. At this point. and causes proteins to coagulate and settle out with the yeast.

. which is introduced into the beer and re-circulated past screens to form a filtration bed. also called kieselguhr. This step comes in many types. Filters range from rough filters that remove much of the yeast and any solids left in the beer. Normally used filtration ratings are divided into rough. to filters tight enough to strain color and body from the beer.* • Filtering the beer stabilizes the flavor. Many use pre-made filtration media such as sheets or candles. and gives beer its polished shine and brilliance. Not all beer is filtered. fine and sterilebeer. diatomaceous earth. while others use a fine powder made of.

Usually this means in bottles and kegs. but it might include cans or bulk tanks for highvolume customers .* * Packaging or Filling is putting the beer into the containers in which it will leave the brewery.


* It is a staple food .

depending upon the recipe. with accounts of leavened bread dating from ancient Egypt (4.* * Bread-making is one of the oldest examples of biotechnology. * In the United Kingdom. This forms a matrix in which yeast is trapped. . salt and possibly fat.000 BC). water. bread is traditionally made from a dough of wheat flour. Amylases in the moistened flour convert starch to glucose. which nourishes the immobilized yeast cells.

Peptones and amino acids are provided by partial hydrolysis of flour proteins (collectively termed gluten).* In addition. . the yeast requires a source of nitrogen. * Gluten contributes to the elasticity and plasticity of the dough. various recipe components which modify either flour proteins or enzyme activity. * This outline protocol may be used to investigate the effect of ensuring that the carbon dioxide remains trapped as it enlarges the air bubbles within the dough. The yeast's anaerobic respiration generates carbon dioxide and alcohol. causing it to rise.

to application of the most advanced batch and continuous fermentation technologies. bioengineering. etc. microbiological and control techniques. of the oldest biotechnical processes. together with the brewing of beer.* Biotechnology includes the application of a wide variety of biological. through the use of enzymes as processing aids. sake and wine. genetic. widest sense. * The baking of yeast-leavened and sourdough breads represents one * A modern baking process may take advantage of biotechnology in its . biochemical. from the improvement of cereal grains and starter cultures by recombinant DNA technology. and the production of yoghurt and cheese.

* * Flour * Liquids * Leavening * Yeast .

the water-soluble proteins dissolve. leaving the glutenin and gliadin to form the structure of the resulting bread’ .insoluble protein groups: Glutenin Gliadin * When flour is mixed with water.* *  * * *  * * Is the one that provides the final structure to the bread water-soluble portein groups: Albumin Globulin Proteoses Water.

.* * Water is used to form the flour into a paste or dough.

when heated.* * Process of adding gas to a dough. * Causes the dough to rise. or increases in volume. * Principle: air or gas expands. .

. producing carbon dioxide.* * Saccharomyces cerevisiae * Ferments carbohydrates in the flour. including any sugar.

algae yeasts. the microbiological concept is widely used. algae . hence fermentation is ‘an anaerobic process where energy is produced without the participation of oxygen or other inorganic electron acceptors’ *. In biotechnology. cyanobacteria * MICRO-ORGANISMS * Several species belonging * PROKARYOTIC * EUKARYOTIC Unicellular: multicellular: fungi.* Biochemists consider fermentation as an energygenerating process in which organic compounds act both as electron donors and acceptors'. to the following categories of micro-organisms are used in fermentation processes: Unicellular: multicellular: cyanobacteria bacteria.

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these bacteria will help settle GI upset including that which follows oral antibiotic therapy by replenishing nonpathogenic flora of the gastrointestinal tract. . * The partial digestion of the milk when these bacteria ferment milk makes yogurt easily digestible. * It is produced by adding a "starter" of active yogurt containing a mixed culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. makes it tart.* Yogurt is a fermented milk product which was apparently brought to Turkey by the mongols millenia ago. The lactic acid lowers the pH. * In addition. causes the milk protein to thicken and acts as a preservative since pathogenic bacteria cannot grow in acid conditions. * These produce lactic acid during fermentation of lactose.

. However. and do not grow well below 37oC (98oF). *At such temperatures (50 °C. in this case) pathogenic or putrifactive bacteria are inhibited. even these thermophilic bacteria are killed if exposed to temperatures over 55oC (130o F). meaning they prefer elevated temperatures for growth.* *Proper incubation temperature: * Lactobacilli and Streptococcus thermophilus are thermophilic bacteria. *Choose a 50°C for the proper growth.

especially if your refrigerator is on the "warm" side. this yogurt will keep at least a month or two in the refrigerator. and use the yogurt for cooking. discard. Merely lift off the mold with a fork. a layer of nonpathogenic white mold may form on the top.* Yogurt is preserved by its acidity which inhibits the growth of putrefactive or pathogenic bacteria. . With lids intact. After that time.

Sugar sprouts are converted into lactic acid and used as a preservative . This lactic acid fermentation is responsible for the bitter taste of dairy products such as cheese. yogurt and kefir.* * The presence of lactic acid. The fermented lactic acid also gives a bitter taste to the fermented vegetables such as traditional pickles and sauerkraut. lactic acid produced during fermentation is responsible for the bitter taste and to improve the microbiological stability and food safety. * http://www.* * http://www.nlm.html * CH/breaddough.shtml * http://www.html * http://ccr.ucdavis.buzzle.biotecharticles.html * alcoholic_drinks/ .reading.html *