Mark Murphy, PE Technical Director, Fluor Corp.
Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits
• • Pressure is the force exerted per unit area Pressure is the action of one force against another force. Pressure is force applied to, or distributed over, a surface. The pressure P of a force F distributed over an area A is defined as P = F/A
GAUGE COMPOUND ABSOLUTE
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE NOM. 14.7 PSIA
TOTAL VACUUM - 0 PSIA
Atmospheric Pressure The pressure exerted by the earth’s atmosphere.696 psia. gauge pressure (defined above) could be considered as Differential Pressure with atmospheric pressure as the reference. Barometric Pressure Same as atmospheric pressure. Differential Pressure The difference in magnitude between some pressure value and some reference pressure.
. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14. Represents positive difference between measured pressure and existing atmospheric pressure. absolute pressure could be considered as a differential pressure with total vacuum or zero absolute as the reference. Can be converted to absolute by adding actual atmospheric pressure value. Zero absolute represents total lack of pressure. The value of atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude.Pressure Measurement Terms
• Absolute Pressure Measured above total vacuum or zero absolute. Gauge Pressure The pressure above atmospheric pressure. Likewise. In a sense.
689476 689.895 6895 5171 70358 2770
Pascal kPa atm
psi bar mbar mm of Hg mm of WC in of WC 100 6.
Gauge) Pressure Switch
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
Transmitter (Vacuum. Gauge) Pressure Gauge
Switch (Vacuum. Absolute. Gauge) Pressure Transmitter
. Compound.Pressure Instruments
Types of Pressure Instruments
Gauges (Vacuum. Absolute. Absolute.
Pressure Gauges are used for Indication only. A Vacuum Gauge is used to measure the pressure in a vacuum.Pressure Gauge
PRESSURE GAUGES: A Pressure Gauge is used for measuring the pressure of a gas or liquid.
• • • •
. A Compound Gauge is used for measuring both Vacuum and Pressure.
the pressure causes the Bourdon tube to straighten itself. thus causing the tip to move. The motion of the tip is transmitted via the link to the movement which converts the linear motion of the bourdon tube to a rotational motion that in turn causes the pointer to indicate the measured pressure. When pressure is applied to the measuring system through the pressure port (socket).
“C” Type Bourdon
Measuring Principle Bourdon tube measuring element is made of a thin-walled C-shape tube or spirally wound helical or coiled tube.
a bidirectional differential range should be used.
. each connected to one of the volumes whose pressure is to be monitored. • In cases where either input can be higher or lower than the other.Differential Pressure Gauge
Measuring Principle: • Differential pressure gauges have two inlet ports.
Differential Pressure Gauge
Unidirectional and Bidirectional DP Gauges
. providing self cleaning action. which may be placed in either of five different sized holes. either silicone oil or glycerin is used. The snubber has a metal disc available in standard grades of porosity.
Used for dampening and filtering and reducing the damaging effects of pulsation on a gauge. and thus allows the user to vary the amount of dampening to suit requirements.Pressure Gauge . The pulsating pressure moves the pin up and down.
Liquid Filled Gauge
The liquid filling is used to dampen any vibration/pulsation in the bourdon.Accessories
Safety Glass Front
Safety Glass is normally used to prevent the glass shattering in the event of the bourdon tube rupturing.
Pulsation Damper (Adjustable Snubber)
Threads on to a gauge socket and provides a restriction by means of a pin.
Pressure Limit Valve
Protects pressure instruments against surges and pulsations. repeatable performance.
Used to dissipate heat by trapping condensed liquid to keep high temperature steam or condensing vapor from damaging the pressure gauge.
. Automatic pressure shut-off. built in snubber enhances instrument protecting performance. Provides automatic positive protection and accurate.Pressure Gauge .
(RVP is the absolute vapor pressure exerted by a liquid at 100°F. also known as chemical seals. The system pressure is transmitted to a fill fluid in the upper housing of the diaphragm seal. isolate pressure measuring instruments from the process media. • Hydrocarbon services having a Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of 18 psig and over. slurried and viscous. and from there to the pressure-measuring instrument itself. • Process fluids that could crystallize or polymerize. • Process fluids that are toxic. such as high temperature. the more volatile the sample and the more readily it will evaporate).Diaphragm Seals
. • Materials capable of withstanding the process fluids that are not available as a pressure element. corrosive. The use of diaphragm seals should be discussed with and approved by the Client. Diaphragm sealed gauges should be considered for: • Process fluids that would clog the pressure elements. • Process fluid that might freeze due to change in ambient temperature and damage the element. • Auto-ignitable hydrocarbon services. The higher this value.
and shock • Pressure fluid composition • Mounting requirement
.Pressure Gauge Selection Guideline
When selecting a Pressure Gauge. pulsation. and cost.
• Accuracy required
• Dial size • Operating pressure range • Chemical compatibility with gauge construction materials • Operating temperature range • Vibration. care should be given to a number of parameters which have an effect on the gauge’s accuracy. safety.
and Inches of Hg. Standard pressure ranges are measured in PSI. Very low pressure gauges have scales that measure in Inches of H2O. Pa or kPa and most of the gauges have dual PSI/metric scales. mm H2O. Vacuum gauges have scales in inches of mercury. Bar.
. you should always select a gauge with a range that is about double your normal anticipated pressure.Pressure Gauge Ranges
• Since the accuracy of most pressure gauges is better in the middle portion of a gauge. The maximum operating pressure should not exceed 80% of the full pressure range of the gauge. while compound gauges have scales that measure in both vacuum and pressure.
.Pressure Gauge Installation
• Top connection preferred for gas installations & side connection preferred for liquid installations. • The pressure gauge can be connected to the pipe by individual block and bleed valves or a two way manifold.
connected to a mechanical lever and set pressure spring.Pressure Switch
Measuring Principle: • The device contains a micro switch. The contacts get actuated when process pressure reaches the set pressure of the spring. on actuation.
• It can be used for high / high-high or low / low-low actuation of pressure in the process . The set range can be adjusted within the switch range.
• The sensing element may be a Diaphragm or a piston
. • It can be used for alarming or interlocking purposes.
in which case two SPDT switches are furnished. • Pressure switches serve to energize or de-energize electrical circuits as a function of whether the process pressure is normal or abnormal.Pressure Switch
• Pressure/Vacuum Switch . in which case the switch is provided with one normally closed (NC) and one normally open (NO) contact. • The electric contacts can be configured as single pole double throw (SPDT).A device that senses a change in pressure/vacuum and opens or closes an electrical circuit when the set point is reached. each of which can operate a separate electric circuit. the switch can be configured as double pole double throw (DPDT). • Alternately.
. Pressure switches are also available in hermetically sealed enclosures.
Pressure Switches are not as commonly used today. since they contain mechanical moving parts and moving parts are significantly more likely to fail than transmitters and the failures can go undetected.Pressure Switch
The switch housings can meet any of the NEMA standards from Type 1 (General Purpose) to Type 7 (Explosion Proof). or Type 12 (Dust Proof) or Type 4 (Water Proof).
Gold plated contacts are available for reliability .
• A Pressure Transmitter is used for both indication and control of a process. Absolute or Differential Pressure Transmitters.
. • A Pressure Transmitter is used where overall high performance is mandatory. • Both Electronic and Pneumatic Transmitters are used. • These can be either Gauge.Pressure Transmitter
• A Pressure Transmitter is used where indication and/or record of pressure is required at a location not adjacent to the primary element.
The differential capacitance between the sensing diaphragm and the capacitor plates is converted electronically to a 4–20 mA or 1-5 VDC signal.Transmitter Measuring Principle
• The diagram shows an electronic differential pressure sensor. Process pressure is transmitted through isolating diaphragms and silicone oil fill fluid to a sensing diaphragm. For a gauge pressure transmitter. The displacement of the sensing diaphragm is proportional to the differential pressure. This particular type utilizes a two-wire capacitance technique. Another common measuring technique is a strain gauge. The sensing diaphragm is a stretched spring element that deflects in response to the differential pressure across it. The position of the sensing diaphragm is detected by capacitor plates on both sides of the sensing diaphragm. the low pressure side is referenced to atmospheric pressure.
analog signal –Smart HART digital signal (superimposed on analog signal) –Fieldbus digital signal –3 to15 psi pneumatic signal
• Typical Outputs –4 to 20 milliamp (mA).
The capillary tubing or direct mount flange connects the diaphragm to the transmitter. the thin. voltage. the diaphragm transfers the measured pressure through the filled system and capillary tubing to the transmitter element. flexible diaphragm and fill fluid separate the pressure sensitive element of the transmitter from the process medium. When process pressure is applied. The displacement is proportional to the process pressure and is electronically converted to an appropriate current. During operation.Diaphragm Seal System
• • A diaphragm seal system consists of a pressure transmitter.
• • •
. diaphragm seals. a fill fluid. or digital HART output signal. and either a direct mount or capillary style connection. This transferred pressure displaces the sensing diaphragm in the pressure-sensitive element of the transmitter.
to reduce maintenance. slurry and viscous. For process temperatures outside the normal operating range and cannot be brought to those limits by impulse piping.Diaphragm Seal System
•WHY USE DIAPHRAGM SEALS? Diaphragm Seal systems provide a reliable process pressure measurement and prevent the process medium from contacting the transmitter diaphragm.
. For process fluids that are toxic. • For process that needs frequent cleaning. • For processes that need replacement of wet legs. corrosive. For process fluids that could freeze or solidify.
Transmitter/ Diaphragm Seal systems shall be used for:
• • • • For process fluid that would clog the pressure elements.
• Accuracy required
• Power supply
• Operating pressure range • Operating temperature range • Body Material • Pressure fluid composition and Internal parts • Mounting requirement • Process connection size
. and utility.Pressure Transmitter Selection Guideline
When selecting a pressure transmitter care should be given to a number of parameters which have an effect on transmitter accuracy. safety.
.Pressure Transmitter installation
• Mounting above tap is typical for gas service and mounting below tap typical for liquid and steam services. • Direct mount is possible for low temperature services.
Diaphragm Seal installation
Examine the particulars of your application. • Wetted Parts: Selecting the transmitter with wetted parts that are compatible with the medium to be measured helps to ensure a long-lasting measurement solution.
Selection of Pressure Instruments: Rules of Thumb: • Application: Understand your application. Is it necessary to know if the pressure is negative or positive? Do you need to know the difference in pressure between two points? Answering these questions about your application will go a long way in helping select the right pressure transmitter.
so that error. it is important to specify not only the required range. Therefore. usually a percentage of full scale. analog electronic (4-20 mA dc). • Output Required: Pressure transmitters can send the process pressure of interest using an analog pneumatic (3-15 psig). or digital electronic signal. but also the amount of overpressure protection needed. is minimized. or failure to isolate the instrument during pressure-testing and start-up. the range of a transmitter should be low (normal operating pressure at around the middle of the range). one must always consider the consequences of overpressure damage due to operating errors. On the other hand.
. faulty design.Pressure Instruments
• Accuracy: From an accuracy point of view.
or an outdoor environment. Pressure transmitters are available in various NEMA ratings or can be assembled in special NEMA rated housings that help protect them from harsh environments.Pressure Instruments
• Protection: Do you need special protection from the elements? Many applications require special protection.
. corrosive environment. such as.