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Microscopy and the Cell

Laboratory Session 2

Viewing Cells

The Microscope

 

"Micro“ – very small “Scope" – to view Microscopes: instruments used to magnify images of small objects/ specimens
Microscope from: http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images/Microscopes/microscope 6.jpeg

The Microscope
There are four main types of microscopes:  Dissection  Compound  Scanning electron microscope  Transmission electron microscope

The Microscope  Unlike a hand held lens (10x).edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images/Microscopes/microscope 6. the compound microscope has two lens for greater magnification (1000x).unm. Microscope from: http://biology.jpeg .

edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images/Microscopes/microscope6. Microscope from: http://biology. Tube – connects ocular lens to the objective lens. Usually there will be 3 or 4 objective lenses on a microscope consisting of 4x.The Microscope    Eyepiece – the part you look through. 10x. It contains the ocular lens which is usually 10x power.jpeg . 40x and 100x powers. Objective lens – the lens closer to the object.unm.

Calculating Magnification  Microscope  Magnification power of the microscope is the product of the magnifications of all the lenses in the system E. . 10x ocular lens and 40x objective lens would give a magnification of 10 x 40 = 400x.g.

edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images/Microscopes/microscope 6.The Microscope  Coarse focus: A knob that moves the tube up and down to focus the microscope on the specimen.jpeg . Fine focus: Another knob that moves the tube small distances for the final focus of the lens.unm.  Microscope from: http://biology.

you will be able to move the slide. Clips hold the slides in place and if mechanical.The Microscope  Stage: The flat platform where sides are placed for observation.jpeg . Illuminator – the light source .unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images/Microscopes/microscope 6.  Microscope from: http://biology.

Supports the tube and connects it to the base.unm.The Microscope  Arm . on which the instrument stands  Microscope from: http://biology.jpeg . It is also used for carrying the microscope. Base: The bottom of the microscope.edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images/Microscopes/microscope 6.

The Cell .

marianopolis.edu/sites/library/sites/BioNYA%20pics/Cheek%20cells.JPG .The Cell You can only view three parts of a cell under the light microscope: the  Nucleus  Cytoplasm  Cell membrane cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus Cheek cells from: http://www.

you can view the organelles with a high resolution microscope called the transmission electron microscope.The Cell  However.edu/lm/IDS_101_histo_resource/images/cell_structure_ lab_micrograph_B-labelled.ucsf.jpg . Plasma cell from: http://missinglink.

Cell Organelles .

jpg .A Typical Animal Cell Animated cell from: http://kconline.edu/bcambron/Biology%20117/Cells_files/image014.kaskaskia.

The Cell Factory  The functions of a cell are usually compared to the workings of a factory .

org/C004535/media/cell_membrane. Cell membrane from: http://library. The cell membrane is selectively permeable allowing only certain substances to enter or leave.gif .thinkquest.The cell membrane   The CELL MEMBRANE – the gate of the factory.

jpg/505 10511/nucleusfigure1.com/file/view/nucleusfigure1.The Cell Factory   The NUCLEUS – the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) The nucleus controls all cell activity and determines what proteins are to be made. Cell nucleus from: http://missbakersbiologyclasswiki.wikispaces. It also stores plans for proteins that the cell currently makes or has made in the past.jpg .

jpg .oupchina.com. It is the jelly like substance situated between the cell membrane and the nucleus and contains the organelles.hk/biology/student/glossary/img/cytoplasm. Cell ctyoplasm from: http://sciencecity.The Cell Factory   The CYTOPLASM – the factory floor. The cytoplasm is the place where most of the cells activity takes place.

k12.in.htm .The Cell Factory   The ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM – the assembly line.us/chsBS/kons/kons/eukaryotic%20cell/cytoplasm_and_its_ associated_str.ccs. It is a network of communication channels passing between the nucleus and the cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum from: http://www.

ccs.in.The Cell Factory  The Endoplasmic Reticulum provides a platform on which the workers assemble different kinds of proteins as designed by the “CEO” Endoplasmic reticulum from: http://www.k12.htm .us/chsBS/kons/kons/eukaryotic%20cell/cytoplasm_and_its_ associated_str.

rid them of any extra material added during their manufacture and wrap them for packing. Workers inspect the products for flaws.The Cell Factory   The GOLGI APPARATUS – the finishing and packing department.com/file/view/nucleusfigure1. The final touches are put on by the golgi.jpg/505 10511/nucleusfigure1.jpg .wikispaces. Golgi apparatus from: http://missbakersbiologyclasswiki.

gif . These are the lysosomes. The lysosomes also act as a second line of defense.The Cell Factory    The LYSOSOMES – maintenance crew. Every factory needs a good maintenance crew to keep clean up the trash and to dismantle and dispose of outdated machinery. destroying trespassers as they enter.daviddarling. Lysosome from: http://www.info/images/lysosome.

The mitochondria of the cell is responsible for producing that energy.org. Mitochondrion from: http://www. The main function of the cell is to build proteins but this requires energy.jpg .The Cell Factory   The MITOCHONDRION – the power plant.lb/en/themes/sciences/zoology/animalphysiology/anatomy/ animalcellstructure/Mitochondria/mitochondria.cartage.

. The design and shape of a cell is very much dictated by its function and the conditions under which it works.Cell Specialization  The discussion so far has been about typical cells. but most cells are anything but typical.

Cell Specialization What system do these cells belong to? Cuboidal cells Red blood cells Neuron .

Cell Specialization Smooth muscle cells What system do these cells belong to? Liver cells Sperm and egg .

Cells Division Mitosis .

MAT prophase.Mitosis Mitosis:  is a process whereby a cell divides into two identical daughter cells  has four main phases . metaphase.P. anaphase and telophase .

wordpress.com/2008/09/celldivision.Mitosis  Note: Interphase is not part of mitosis but normal cell activity and preparation that occurs before mitosis Mitosis diagram from: http://healthinfoispower.files.jpg .

Mitosis Onion root tip from: http://www.lima.ohiostate.jpg .edu/biology/images/apical_meristem.

Transport of Materials across the Cell Membrane .

Active Transport  Transport methods are grouped according to their energy requirements.Passive vs. transport – does not require energy from the cell  Active transport – requires energy from the cell. usually in the form of ATP  Passive .

gif .wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diffusion.Passive Transport  Diffusion – the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Diffusion from: http://commons.

bc.gif .Passive Transport  Osmosis – the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Osmosis from: http://library.stratfordhall.ca/osmosis_files/osmosisdiffusion.

stratfordhall.bc.Passive Transport  The effect of osmosis on red blood cells Osmosis from: http://library.gif .ca/osmosis_files/osmosisdiffusion.

7x15.Passive Transport  Facilitated Diffusion – the movement of particles through a carrier protein Facilitated diffusion from: http://www.facilitated.jpg .bio.edu/~cmallery/150/memb/c8.miami.diffu sion.

org/local/cachevignettes/L402xH277/kidney_filtrate-e9a33.gif .actions-traitements. Filtration from: http://www.Passive Transport  Filtration – the use of hyrdostatic force to move water or a dissolved substance across a membrane.

gif .net/bio/images/active_transport.Active Transport  Active Transport – the use of ATP to move substances against their concentration gradient Active transport from: http://kenpitts.

Active Transport  Exocytosis – the transfer of substances out of the cell Osmosis from: http://kenpitts.net/bio/images/exocytosis.gif .

jpg .org/images/endocytosis_1_c_la_784.Active Transport  Endocytosis – the transfer of substances into the cell  Phagocytosis – bacteria and other large subsatnces  Pinocytosis – water and dissolved stubstances Endocytosis from: http://www.yellowtang.

THE END .

Complete the Worksheet Microscopy and the Cell .

Beyond Books.pdf Accessed 21/02/2010 . http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/pdfs/cellsystem_anskey. A Busy Factory.asp Accessed 21/02/2010 Comparing the cell to a factory http://www.com/lif71/4a.beyondbooks.References    The Microscope: Parts and Specifications http://www.org/basic/microscope-parts. 2007.htm Accessed 21/02/2010 Apex Learning Inc.microscopemicroscope.