You are on page 1of 38

The Skeletal System

Functions of the Skeletal system


   

Support Protection Movement Blood cell formation Storage of calcium Storage of fat

Structure of Long Bone
•Articular

cartilage – hyaline

cartilage •Compact bone – haversian system •Spongy bone – red bone marrow •Red bone marrow – production of red blood cells •Yellow bone marrow – adipose tissue •Periosteum – connective tissue membrane
Long bone from: http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/f64c_gross_anatomy_of__c.jpg

Compact Bone Haversian system/ Osteon Osteocyte in lacunae Spider-shaped cell in tight space Haversian canal Longitudinal channel containing small blood vessels and nerve fibers Canaliculi Projections of the osteocyte for nutrients and communication Haversian system from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Compact_bone__ground_cross_section.jpg .

org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Spongy_bone_-_trabecules.jpg .Spongy Bone   Comprised of traberculae (small plates of osseous tissue) and red bone marrow Located at the epiphysis of long bone and the center of other bones Trabercula Spongy bone from: http://upload.wikimedia.

2 The structure of Bone .1 Bone anatomy Activity 4.ACTIVITY   Activity 4.1.1.

thoracic. sacral and coccygeal vertebrae  Vertebrae   Ribs and sternum .Axial Skeleton  The axial skeleton is composed of the:  Skull  Cranium and facial bones Cervical. lumbar.

clintoncc.edu/faculty/Michael.jpg . immovable joints called sutures O Lambdoid suture Separates the occipital (O) from the parietal bones (P) Suture from: http://faculty.suny.Gregory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102%2 0lectures/Motor%20Systems/immovable_joint.Joints of the Skull  P P The bones are the skull (except for the mandible) a joined at fibrous.

flexible regions that allow the skull to compress during the birth process Fetal skulls from: http://www.bio.Fontanelles Fontalnelles – areas where bone formation is incomplete.jpg & http://homes.com/anatomy/skeletal/bones_skull_fetal.psu.biologycorner.jpg .edu/people/faculty/strauss/anatomy/skel/pics/Fetal%20Skull%20co py.

edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/f74t_anterior_view_of__c.Skull Anterior skull from: http://academic.jpg .kellogg.

kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/f76t_lateral_view_of_t_c.jpg .Skull Lateral skull from: http://academic.

jpg .edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/f79t_superior_view_of__c.Skull Internal skull from: http://academic.kellogg.

2.3 Skull tutorial Activity 4.2.1 Skull bones Activity 4.2.2 Birth of a baby Activity 4.4 Skull quiz .2.ACTIVITY     Activity 4.

each has: a body. spinous process.jpg . two transverse processes and a vertebral foramen Curvatures  Primary – thoracic and sacral  Secondary – cervical and lumbar Vertebral column from: http://academic.Vertebrae   Except for C1 and C2.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/f728_vertebral_column_c.

kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/f730c_axis_and_atlas_p_g.Atlas and Axis Atlas and axis: http://academic.jpg .

jpg .Types of Vertebrae B TP TP VF SP VF SP VF SP TP B B Note the differences of the three bones in respect to the: 1.anatomy. Body (B) 2. Spinous process (SP) 4.tv/StudyGuides/images/vertebrae. Transverse process (TP) 3. Vertebral foramen (VF) Vertebrae from: http://www.

Thoracic cage Thoracic cage from: your Memmler’s textbook pg. 102 (see how important your text is!) .

3.5 Thoracic cage quizzes .3.2 Vertebral column tutorials Activity 4.4 Thoracic cage tutorials Activity 4.3.1 Human Anatomy – Vertebral column Activity 4.ACTIVITY      Activity 4.3.3.3 Vertebral column quizzes Activity 4.

Appendicular Skeleton     Pectoral girdle Arm. leg and foot . forearm and hand Pelvic girdle Thigh.

Pectoral girdle Pectoral girdle from: http://faculty.edu/faculty/michael.clintoncc.jpg .gregory/files/bio%20102/bio%20102%20 lectures/Motor%20Systems/pectoral_girdle.suny.

Scapula Scapulas from: http://www.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/Scapula_post.org/medical/skeletal/scapula%20left.arthursclipart.gif and http://upload.wikimedia.jpg .

Scapula Scapulas from: http://www.wikimedia.arthursclipart.org/medical/skeletal/scapula%20left%202.jpg .org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Scapula_ant.gif and http://upload.

jeeran.montgomerycollege.Clavicle Clavicles from: http://abondok.com/Upper_limb/00clavicle.edu/~wolexik/Clavicle-superior.jpg .jpg and http://www.

answers.Articulations X ray of Pectoral girdle from: http://content.1.com/main/content/img/oxford/Oxford_Body/019852403x.should er.jpg .

Humerus Humerus from: http://academic.jpg .kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/f84a_right_humerus_ant_c.

clc.Ulna and radius Ulna and radius from: http://biology.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/Anatomy_&_Physiology/A&P201/Skeletal/sele cted_bones/radius_ulna_dis_PB060017_lbd.JPG .

jpg .Hand Hand from: http://www.org/IMAGES/hand.physioweb.

4.1 Upper limb tutorials Activity 4.4.2 Upper limb quizzes .ACTIVITY   Activity 4.

jpg .Pelvic Girdle Pelvis from: http://academic.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/f8-7_pelvis_c.kellogg.

flickr. closer Acute Smaller. Female pelvis Characteristic Illiac walls Bone thickness Male More vertical Narrow Thicker (heavier) Female More flared Wide Thinner (lighter) Acetabula Pubic angle Larger.jpg .static. farther apart Broader Pelvic bones from: http://farm4.Male vs.com/3034/2283718939_0939370dc0.

si.Male vs.html .edu/writteninbone/male_female. Female pelvis Characteristic Coccyx Male Curved ventrally Female Straighter Pelvic bones from: http://anthropology.

medicalpages.co.Femur Femur from: http://www.uk/images/orthopaedics/femur-left-femurmedicalpages.jpg .

kellogg.jpg .Patella Patella from: http://academic.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/f812_patella_c.

co.uk/images/orthopaedics/tibia-andfibula-left-tibia-fibula-medicalpages.medicalpages.Tibia and fibula Tibia and fibula from: http://www.jpg .

edu/faculty/michael.jpg .gregory/files/bio%20102/bio%20102%20 lectures/Motor%20Systems/foot.Foot Foot from: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.

ACTIVITY 5   Activity 4.5.2 Lower limb quiz .5.1 Lower limb tutorial Activity 4.

The END .

J. Baltimore. Human Anatomy and Physiology.Refernces   Cohen. Taylor (2009). B. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Hoehn (2010). E. Marieb. Memmler's Structure and Function of the Human Body. San Francisco. N. Benjamin Cummings. and J. J. and K. .