You are on page 1of 16

Epidemiology Study of when & where diseases occur and how they are transmitted ‘epidemic’ - Greek, ‘upon people’

Parameters: age sex race/ethnicity socio-economic status occupation immunization common history: same restaurant, school

‘upon people’ Endemic .usual occurrence of a disease in a population .Greek.Epidemiology Study of when & where diseases occur and how they are transmitted ‘epidemic’ .

Epidemiology Study of when & where diseases occur and how they are transmitted ‘epidemic’ .usual occurrence of a disease in a population Epidemic .Greek.an increase in the number of cases in a population . ‘upon people’ Endemic .

an increase in the number of cases in a population Pandemic .Greek.a worldwide epidemic .Epidemiology Study of when & where diseases occur and how they are transmitted ‘epidemic’ . ‘upon people’ Endemic .usual occurrence of a disease in a population Epidemic .

. 283 cases 250 million population 10.non-Hispanic white: elderly and those ~40 others: 30-40 years of age .000 (Fig.42 cases/100.20.4) foreign born .7 cases/100.000 population TB .283 cases ethnicity .1991 26.29. 15.27% of 26.7% other groups age .000 Rate may vary with population measured NY and DC .Incidence of disease Number of new cases in a specified time period # cases/year/100.3% non-Hispanic whites 70.

Hemopheliacs 4. Men with homosexual or bisexual life 2. Others .Incidence of disease HIV . Drug users 3.primarily in four groups/populations 1.less well-defined .

Incidence of disease Outbreak .2 or more cases related to a common occurrence .

Incidence of disease Outbreak .incidence of specific diseases in a population .2 or more cases related to a common occurrence Morbidity .

incidence of specific diseases in a population Mortality* .incidence of death Incidence + Prevalence -estimate occurrence & tendency for a disease to occur more frequently in certain groups * Must be reported to Communicable Disease Center .Incidence of disease Outbreak .2 or more cases related to a common occurrence Morbidity* .

Mary Mallon ~1900 over 200 cases directly linked to her many more from those cases 1903 .Ithaca. diphtheriae Typhoid Mary .SOURCES OF PATHOGENS & TRANSMISSION Reservoirs Human reservoir 2-7% of school children harbor C. NY epidemic. diphtheriae .carrier 90% of population have had an infection with C. 1000 died .

few transfer rabies .cooling towers giardiasis. welchii.Legionella pneumophila . C.skunks. C. perfringens cocccidiomycosis . rural communities Soil .C.earthquake in CA Water .Reservoir Animals . racoons campers. typhoid fever. dysentery. cholera .most are animal pathogens. tetani.

Routes of transmission Direct contact: sexual contact. ticks. water.tissues. coughing airborne: dust (coccoidiomycosis) Vehicle transmission: food. eating utensils. food. doorknobs. touching Indirect contact: fomites . lice insect as intermediate host (malaria) . needles Droplet transmission: sneezing. mosquitoes. blood Vector transmission: fleas.

S. P. coli. aureus. S.Hospital .nosocomial infections E. aeruginosa. pneumoniae ~5% of hospital patients develop an infection Hospitals contain compromised hosts people with infectious agents workers and visitors carrying opportunists Break the chain of transmission wear gloves wash hands proper disposal .

specific symptoms & signs which accompany a particular disease .objective changes.CLASSIFYING INFECTIOUS DISEASE Symptoms . observable changes Syndrome .subjective changes Signs .

specific symptoms & signs which accompany a particular disease CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASE Communicable disease Contagious disease Non-contagious disease . observable changes Syndrome .subjective changes Signs .objective changes.CLASSIFYING INFECTIOUS DISEASE Symptoms .

rapid onset. short duration Chronic .slower onset. long duration Latent disease .SEVERITY OF DISEASE Acute .