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STATISTICS MANAGEMENT • Performance Indicators • Projection Techniques

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR
 Need for Performance Indicators  Generating Performance Indicators  Natural factors  Demographic factors  Economic factors  Social factors  Spatial factors  Educational factors  Summary of Indicators to Achieve Efficiency, Equity, and Quality Improvement

They “point out” the extent of identified aspects of management. as well as facilitate research on the system. They also serve as baseline data for target setting. so that managers/planners may take appropriate measures for performing the necessary “course correction” (if deviation from the national mean is detected) or for further raising the level of the system’s efficiency and effectiveness. and forecast outflow of individuals with different kinds of education and training. estimate future costs. They also provide targets.PERFORMANCE INDICATOR Need for Performance Indicators Indicators of actual performance in relation to plan objectives and targets may be both quantitative and qualitative. They are employed by managers/planners as aids in the process of planning and systems provision. monitor changes in. so that optimal benefits will be derived from it. . Performance indicators are bases for determining the system’s efficiency and effectiveness and for implementing plans.

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR Generating Performance Indicators .

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR Generating Performance Indicators .

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR Generating Performance Indicators .

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR Generating Performance Indicators .

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR Generating Performance Indicators .

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR Generating Performance Indicators .

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 birth and death rates.Socio-economic  Socio-economic indicators include:  access to modern health facilities and information. through joint ownership of society’s means of production.  participation of group decision making affecting work and leisure.  possession of good health. including family planning. and  literacy rate of the population.  possession of technical skills.  opportunity for improvement in real income and purchasing power. .  access to basic social and economic infrastructure.  increasing feeling of social justice.

such as participation rate. objectives and targets for the plan will be achieved. teacher-pupil ratio. book-pupil ratio. managers/planners should examine the employability of graduates. effective supervision and management. provision for research and evaluation.  Application of performance indicators as example to this topic are:  To determine the internal efficiency of the secondary school. effective dissemination of desirable cultural values and attitudes to personnel and administrator’s knowledge and awareness of various innovations/techniques being experimented and implemented in the construction. completion and graduation rates. The following are specific indicators for determining the internal. unemployed. etc. teacher’s performance. retention rate. presence of adequate resources. class-teacher ratio.  For the operation efficiency of the system managers/planners look at the structural changes in the system. teaching-learning processes. Are the graduates of the construction engineering system employed.  For the external efficiency of the system. availability of resources percentage of output absorbed in the system. perpupil cost. knowledge of managerial development and redirection. underemployed after finishing a course? Does the firm produce desirable outputs with right attitude and values toward work? Do personnel tend to respond to the economic and other needs of society? Are personnel innovative and creative? Are personnel aware of the duties and responsibilities of good and worthy citizens of the society? . survival rate. operational and external efficiency and effectiveness of the system in order that the goals. adequacy of physical facilities. pupils’ performance.

implement projects to improve retention rate to increase achievement rate. On the other hand. Planners at the office who analyze. With this information. They may. the regions/firms above the national averages will give more emphasis on the qualitative aspects of management or on the improvement of the quality of their graduates/personnel. Planners and managers use these indicators for setting objectives/targets. The results of the various average national rates and ratios are to be presented to all regional directors so that they will know whether their regions are above or below the national averages. . aside from increasing their performance further. for example.All the foregoing indicators which managers/planners generate from data/information taken from surveys and from existing situations in the different levels (from the regional to the institutional) serve s baseline data for setting objectives/targets for the plan period. the regions/firms with low performance indicators will try to improve their performance. synthesize an integrate all these plans determine the national average of the various indicators.

The initial attempt took place in 1975 when the Office of Planning Services (OPS) undertook the Decentralized Education Planning Program (DEPP). OPS conducted a comprehensive situational analysis of public elementary schools through the use of five variables. (3) teacher’s capabilities. (2) availability of classrooms and school buildings. which focused on disadvantaged.Development of Performance Indicators in the DECS (Examples) The Department of Education. . To identify the DDU schools in the various areas of the country. namely: (1) school sites. (4) instructional materials. Culture and Sports (DECS) has been developing indicators to measure its performance. The DEPP aimed at identifying the indicators of sufficiency or insufficiency or the inequitable distribution of resources in the elementary schools of the country. depressed and undeserved (DDU) schools. and (5) school furniture and equipment.

such as the following:  Access criterion – used to look into disparities at entry points to the school system and measured mainly by (a) participation or enrolment ratio. In 1979. (e) drop-out rate. the Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) launched the Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED). (c) survival rate. and (f) achievement rate:  Internal efficiency criterion – measured by the cohort survival rate. (b) literacy rate. In drawing up the educational disparities or deprivation picture. (d) transition rate. . and  Effectiveness criterion – measured by returns to investment.  Quality criterion – measured by the SOUTELE achievement. it simultaneously employed several performance criteria.

relevance. Nine of these are key indicators and the rest. Supportive indicators. sensitivity and impact-orientation. satisfy the criteria of measurability. . comprehensiveness. It defined 29 indicators for education. • Key indicators are those which satisfy the criteria of measurability. appropriateness and may show only some aspects of the extent to which the goals are being attained. supportive. the Economic and Social Impact Analysis of Women in Development (ESIAWID) gave further opportunity for the MEC to review its indicators. on the other hand.• Subsequently. appropriateness.

• With the use of data available in the Educational Statistics Data Bank (ESDB). effectiveness. These indicators are categorized according to major indicators grouping based on four concerns of the DECS. effectiveness.several key indicators can be computed. . namely: efficiency. the ASEAN-Educational Management Information System (ASEAN-EMIS) enumerated indicators in the List of Performance Indicators for Elementary and Secondary Education. Since an indicator may be an appropriate performance indicator relative to two or more concerns. these groupings are not mutually exclusive. equity and excellence. they may be utilized for evaluating the educational system’s performance at various levels in relation to the DECS’ goal of efficiency. and quality improvement. • In 1981. equity.

efficiency indicators allow the comparison of actual outputs against given inputs.• Efficiency indicators are used for monitoring the attainment of one of the DECS’ concerns. Cost basically refers to expenditures associated with the use of resources like personnel. producing desired results or providing quality education at least possible cost. measure the degree of utilization of the resources that are available to the educational system.. viz. . In effect.

(3) teacher-class ratio. (14) failure rate.• The following examples may be considered indicators of efficiency: (1) pupil-teacher ratio. (4) teacher-section ratio. (15) drop-out rate. (16) cohort survival. (9) repetition rate. . (12) promotion rate. (5) per-pupil cost. (10) transition rate. and( 17) stay-out rate. (11) completion rate. • Effectiveness indicators measure the ability of the DECS to perform its mandate of providing educational system’s actual level of accomplishment relative to its thrust and goals. (7) survival rate. (13) graduation rate. (2) student-section ratio. (6) retention rate. (8) group survival rate.

(10) failure rate. (8) promotion rate. (7) completion rate. (13) cohort survival rate. (3) survival rate. (4) group survival rate. (9) graduation rate. (12) scores in nationally administered achievement tests. (16) and number of athletes participating in division meets. (11) drop-out rate. . (14) stay-out rate. (6) transition rate. (15) number of sports activities conducted in schools. (2) retention rate.• The following may be considered indicators of effectiveness: (1) participation rate. (5) repetition rate.

(12) scores in nationally administered achievement tests. (7) pupil density. (13) pupil/student-textbook ratio. place of residence and intellectual capability. pupil-teacher ratio. (5) class-classroom ratio. They indicate equality of access.E. but also to quality education. (15) P.E. The following may be considered indicators of equity: (1) pupil-teacher ratio. (4) teacher-section ratio. (9) per-pupil cost. (3) teacher-class ratio. regardless of economic status./sports area-student ratio. (6) section-classroom ratio. (16) pupil/student-P. equipment ratio. (11) transition rate. (14) proportion of teachers with graduate degrees. (2) student-section ratio.E. • . not only to physical facilities like schools.• Equity indicators are used for indicating the degree to which opportunities for education are provided for the population. (10) participation rate. (8) P. and (17) number of non-formal education centers.

/sports area-student ratio. (7) P. (11) P. teacher quality). (3) teacher-class ratio. pupil-teacher ratio. (9) scores in nationally administered achievement tests.. (5) class-classroom ratio. equipment ratio.• Quality improvement indicators are intended to measure quality of the output of the educational system (e.g. (18) in-service training hours by subject area per teacher. (6) section-classroom ratio. quality of graduate) as well as quality performance inputs (e.g. (4) teacher-section ratio. (19) and performance rating of teachers. • . (8) per-pupil/per-student-cost.E. (13) teacher turnover rate. (2) student-section ratio.E. (15) ratio of subject area teachers to major holders in given subject areas. (14) proportion of teacher with graduate degrees.. (10) pupil/student-textbook ratio. (17) NCEE scores of teacher trainees. (12) pupil/student-P. These indicators measure performance relative to some given standards. The following may be considered indicators of quality improvement: (1) pupil-teacher ratio.E. (16) PMET scores of teachers.

and Quality Improvement I. Indicators Computed on an Annual Ratio Basis  Pupil-Teacher Ratio  Student-Section Ratio  Teacher-Class Ratio  Teacher-Section Ratio  Class-Classroom Ratio  Section-Classroom Ratio  Pupil Density  Student Density  P.E.E. student-Teacher Ratio  P.Summary of Indicators to Achieve Efficiency. Equity. student-Teacher Ratio  Per Pupil Cost  Per Student Cost  Participation Rate            Retention Rate Survival Rate Group Survival Rate Repetition Rate Transition Rate Completion Rate Promotion Rate Graduation Rate Failure Rate Drop-out Rate Scores in Nationally Administered Achievement Tests .

and Quality Improvement II./Sports Area-Student Ratio  Pupil/Student-P. Equity. Sample Indicators Computed by Way of Special Studies  Cohort Survival Rate  Proportion/Teacher Turnover Rate  Participation Rate (for ages 6-16)  Indicators of Teacher Quality  Stay-out Rate .E.Summary of Indicators to Achieve Efficiency. Equipment Ratio III.E. Sample Indicators to Achieve Equity and Quality  Pupil/Student-Textbook Ratio  Proportion of Teachers with Graduate Degrees  P.