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Metal Casting Processes

AE 587: Automotive Manufacturing Processes By Dr. E. Orady
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Lecture Topics
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Introduction Sand casting Design of mold elements Solidification of casting Fluidity Casting processes; expendable and permanent casting processes Melting practice and Furnaces Factors affecting casting cost Casting quality Design Considerations for Casting
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Casting Processes
• DEFINITION:
– The casting process is defined as the process of melting (heating to a proper temperature above the freezing point) of a material (mostly metals) and treating it to have a proper composition, then pouring the molten material into a cavity or mold which holds it in the proper shape during solidification. – The product of this process a casting.
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Some casting processes are net shape. to produce very large parts weighing up to 30 tons. to utilize work piece materials that are difficult to process by some other means.Selection of casting processes over other manufacturing processes Casting Processes are selected for the following reasons: » » » » » » to produce complex shapes with internal cavities or hollow sections. others are near net shape economical to use Some casting methods are suited to mass production 8/12/2009 4 AE 587 .

Disadvantages of Casting  Different disadvantages for different casting processes: » Limitations on mechanical properties » Poor dimensional accuracy and surface finish for some processes. sand casting » Safety hazards to workers due to hot molten metals » Environmental problems 5 AE 587 8/12/2009 . e.g..

TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF CASTING PRODUCTS • Frames and housings of machines • Structural parts • Machine components • Engine blocks • Crank shafts • Pistons • Pipes • Valves • Rail road equipment. Some Cast Components in a Typical Automobile Source Kalpakjian 8/12/2009 6 AE 587 . etc.

Categories of Casting Processes

Expendable Mold Casting processes » Mold is used one time » Molds made of sand or Plaster or similar materials » typical: – Sand mold – Shell mold – Expended Polystyrene – Plaster – Investment – etc.
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Permanent Mold casting processes » Mold is used over and over to produce many castings » Mold made of metal » Typical: – Slush – Low pressure – Die casting – Centrifugal

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Automotive Casting Processes
Following are the commonly used casting processes in automotive applications:  Sand Casting  Die casting  Lost Wax casting  Lost Foam casting  Cosworth Casting  Squeeze casting

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BASIC OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN CASTING
1. MOLDING

a) single-use molds: for small production such as sand casting, and b) permanent molds: for large production such as die casting. 2. MELTING PROCESSES 3. POURING TECHNIQUES 4. SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS 5. SHAKEOUT AND REMOVAL OF THE PRODUCT 6. CLEANING, FINISHING AND INSPECTION
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0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 10 AE 587 .10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features.Mold Features Mold Terminology:    Cavity Well Gating System » Sprue or Downsprue » »    Runner Gates Riser Parting Line Flask/Cope/Drag FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

and titanium Castings range in size from small to very large Production quantities from one to millions 8/12/2009 11 AE 587 .Sand Casting     Most widely used casting process. accounting for a significant majority of total tonnage cast Nearly all alloys can be sand casted. nickel. including metals with high melting temperatures. such as steel.

2nd Ed.1 A large sand casting weighing over 680 kg (1500 lb) for an air compressor frame (photo courtesy of Elkhart Foundry). Source: M. Groover.Example of a Sand Cast Figure 11. 8/12/2009 12 AE 587 .

Sand Casting Molds   Sand casting mold » Sand +bonding material+ Water » Sand +bonding material Types » Green sand mold » Dry sand mold » Core sand molds » Loam molds » Shell molds » Cement bond molds Pattern A Typical Sand Mold Source: DeGarmo/Black/Kohser + Core = Product 8/12/2009 13 AE 587 .

Characteristics of a Sand Mold       Strong enough to hold the metal Resist erosive action of rapidly flowing metal during pouring Generates a minimum amount of gas when filled with molten metal Allows gases generated to pass through Refractory enough to withstand high temperature and strip away cleanly from the casting after cooling Core must collapse enough to permit the casting to contract after solidification 14 AE 587 8/12/2009 .

Properties of Molding Sand     Refractoriness » The ability of sand to withstand high temperature » It is provided by the basic nature of sand » Common sand: Silica (SiO2). or illite Permeability » The ability to permit gases to escape through it » Function of size and shape of sand particles. cellulose or other organic materials that burn out when they contact hot metal. Zircon. 8/12/2009 15 AE 587 . kaolinite. or Olivine Cohesiveness » The ability to retain a given shape when packed into a mold » Adding bonding materials such as: Bentonite. clay and moisture contents Collapsibility » The ability to permit the metal to shrink after it solidifies and to free the casting from surrounding mold » Obtained by adding cereals.

Types of Molding Sand  Natural sand » Sand + natural bond clay » Used as received Loam sand » Sand + 50% clay (natural) » Used for large castings   Synthetic sand » Washed sand + Binder (Bentonite) + Water » Advantages over natural sand – Uniform grain size – Higher refractoriness – Moldability with less moisture – Require less binder – Easier to control properties – Less storage space 8/12/2009 16 AE 587 .

for the contraction of the metal after it solidifies and cools.  The pattern dimensions are the same as the final product plus a set of allowances which include : » shrinkage allowance.PATTERNS  The pattern is a duplicate of the part to be cast. and molding technique. a slope on the walls of the pattern to allow easy withdrew of the pattern from the mold. needed when the final product has surfaces to be machined after the casting process. » Other allowances such as distortion allowance 8/12/2009 17 AE 587 . modified to meet the requirements of the casting process. metal being cast. » machining allowance. » draft allowance.

for small quantity » Metal. for larger quantity » Hard Plastics.PATTERNS  Pattern materials » Wood. for investment casting » Polystyrene. used with organically bonded sand to avoid sand stick to pattern skin » Wax. used with full mold-process  Selection of pattern material is function of: » » » » number of castings size and shape of the casting desired dimensional precision molding process 8/12/2009 18 AE 587 .

Types of Patterns Figure 11.3 Types of patterns used in sand casting: (a) solid pattern (b) split pattern (c) match-plate pattern (d) cope and drag pattern 8/12/2009 19 AE 587 .

The core(in sand casting) is made from a special sand mix which is collapsible under the shrinkage stress of the casting to avoid causing cracks on the casing. The core usually has the shape of the cavity plus allowances and a support. called a core print. Core made by gluing the two halves Core Box Two Core Halves 8/12/2009 20 Source:DeGarmo/Black/Kohser AE 587 . to hold the core in the mold.CORE  A core is made when the final product has an internal cavity or hollow.

(b) possible chaplet design.Core in Mold Figure 11. 8/12/2009 21 AE 587 . Source: M. (c) casting with internal cavity. 2nd Ed. L.4 (a) Core held in place in the mold cavity by chaplets. Groover.

] Dry-sand cores for V-8 engine block Engine Block Casting 8/12/2009 22 Source: DeGarmo/ Black/ Kohser AE 587 .Core Materials      Green sand Dry sand [ sand plus binder packed in wood or metal core box] Packed sand [ made by mixing sand with a vegetable oil or synthetic oil as binder. The mix is cured using hot force air at 400 to 500oF.] CO2 sand [sand + sodium silicate (water glass)] Shell sand [sand plus liquid thermosetting and catalyst is blown into a core box heated to around 450oF. This process is called core-oil process. and water with cereal or clay to develop green strength.

thereby prevent cracking and allow easy shakeout. » adequate refractoriness » smooth surface » minimum generation of gases when heated during pour 8/12/2009 23 AE 587 .CORE  Characteristics » sufficient hardness and strength (after baking or hardening) to withstand handling and forces of the molten metal » sufficient strength before hardening to permit handling » adequate permeability » collapsibility to permit shrinkage of the casting as it cools.

Mold Preparation      Manual Use of jolting machines Squeezing machines Combined jolting and squeezing Automatic mold-making machines » Match-plate machines » Vertically parted flaskless molding machine 8/12/2009 24 AE 587 .

Manual Preparation of Sand Mold 8/12/2009 Source: Kalpakjian 25 AE 587 .

POURING (GATING) SYSTEM  Pouring system should be designed to ensure smooth flow "laminar flow" and fill the mold at the shortest possible time before metal solidify. GATES Pouring System Source: Ghosh/Mallik 8/12/2009 26 AE 587 . A typical pouring system is shown in the Figure. RUNNERS 5. WELL 4. POURING BASIN 2. SPRUE :It should be designed to ensure smooth flow and avoid aspiration 3. It consists of the ht following: 1.

ht) where: g = gravitational acceleration./sec (cm/s). g. A = cross sectional area..2 (cm2) and v= flow velocity in. namely. and h3 = the height of the sprue. (cm) 8/12/2009 27 AE 587 . gates.  where Q = volumetric flow rate. The flow velocity at the bottom of the sprue (see figure) is determined by applying Bernoulli's Equation.in. The velocity is v3 = sqrt( 2. the equation of continuity and Bernoulli's Equation The flow velocity at any point in the pouring system (sprue .. g=386 in. in./sec2 (981 cm/s2). The pouring time can be estimated by applying the fluid flow laws. and runners) is controlled by the continuity equation: Q = A1 v1 = A2 v2 .POURING (GATING) SYSTEM   POURING TIME: The pouring time is defined as the time needed to fill or inject the molten metal into the mold. in.3/sec (cm3/s). etc.

3 (cm3) A3 = gating area in2 (cm2). BOTTOM GATING See Figure  2 Am tf  A3 2 g where  ht  (ht  hm  Am = the mold projection area. ( You have to do some integration to calculate the time in bottom gating) 8/12/2009 28 AE 587 . and tf= pouring time in sec. in. See Figure tf = V/ A3 v3 where V= volume of the casting including riser.POURING (GATING) SYSTEM Pouring time  VERTICAL (TOP) POURING SYSTEM.

Re < 2000 laminar flow 2000<Re < 20. respectively of the fluid.Flow Characteristics  Two type of flow: » Laminar flow » Turbulent  Governing factor is Reynolds number. and r and h are the density and viscosity. Re Re  vDr h Where: v is the velocity of the liquid. D is the diameter of the channel.000 represent severe turbulent flow.000 is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow Re>20.  Proper flow and design of gating system is needed to prevent mold erosion and introduction of dross and slag inside the mold cavity 8/12/2009 29 AE 587 .

h3 A2/A3 = sqrt(h3/h2) h2  Runner and Gates Design » The ratio between: A3:Ar:Ag = 1: 4 :4 i.e. the runner area (Ar) Ar = 4xA3 And the total gating area(Ag) Ag = Ar = 4xA3 8/12/2009 30 AE 587 .POURING (GATING) SYSTEM  Sprue Design » Tapered sprue is used to maintain constant liquid flow through it and avoid aspiration. » Therefore. the following relation should be satisfied Q = A 2 v2 = A 3 v3 Hence.

(b) the volume rate of flow.001 m3. and (c) the time required to fill up the cavity. Determine (a) the velocity of the molten metal flowing through the base of the downsprue. 8/12/2009 31 AE 587 . whose volume = 0. The sprue leads into a horizontal runner that feeds the mold cavity. The cross-sectional area at the bottom of the sprue is 400 mm2.Example 1  A mold has a top gating system with a downspure of length = 175 mm.

00 in.0 in. 8/12/2009 32 AE 587 .3/sec. and the cross-sectional area at the top where the pouring cup leads into the downsprue is 1.Example 2  The volume rate of flow of molten metal into the downsprue from the pouring cup is 50 in. The length of the sprue is 8. Determine what the area should be at the bottom of the sprue in order to avoid aspiration of the liquid metal.2.

Solidification of Metals   Solidification is the transformation of molten metal back into solid state Solidification of pure metals is different from that of alloys. 8/12/2009 33 AE 587 . Proper solidification is the second step of producing a high quality casting.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) Density as a function of time. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals.Pure Metal Solidification FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 34 AE 587 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature.

Pure Metal Solidification  Solidification is the growth of favorably oriented nuclei in the direction of heat extraction » Randomly oriented small grains form near the mold walls » Columnar grains form towards the center of the mold » shrink cavities (pipe) forms due to low supply of fresh liquid 8/12/2009 35 AE 587 .

Solidification of Eutectic Alloys    Solidification occurs at a constant temperature (like pure metal). Eutectic cells form inside the grains The properties of the cast part are affected by: » Cooling rate » Nucleation agents » Alloy modifications 8/12/2009 36 AE 587 .

Solidification proceeds by dendritic form. At high cooling rate. the formed grains are smaller and the strength is improved. 8/12/2009 37 AE 587 . Dendrites result in microporosity. Dendritics arms can break off and re-melt.Solid Solution Solidification        Solidification takes place over a freezing range. Grains grow in the direction of heat extraction. Initially solidified material has lower alloying element concentration.

Alloy Solidification Figure Source: M. Groover 8/12/2009 38 AE 587 .P.

Alloy Solidification
Pouring Temperature Superheat Start of Solidification End of Solidification Solid Cooling

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 5.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone.

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Cast Structures

Columnar grains oriented towards the center of the mold Small, randomly oriented grains

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

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FIGURE 5.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals, with preferred texture at the cool mold wall. Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface; (b) solid-solution alloys; and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains.

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Dendritic Solidification

Ref: Porter, et al., Phase Transformations In Metals & Alloys, Van Nostrand Reinhold, UK, 1981

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Note the difference in solidification pattern as the carbon contents increase. 5th ed.S. Source: After H. F. Note that after 11 min of cooling. (b) Solidification of carbon steels in sand and chill (metal) molds. Bishop and W. 8/12/2009 42 AE 587 .7 (a) Solidification pattern for gray cast iron in a 180-mm (7-in) square casting. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 5. Pellini. It takes about two hours for this casting to solidify completely. dendrites reach each other. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. but the casting is still mushy throughout.

Source: After D.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. 8/12/2009 43 AE 587 . (b) equiaxed dendritic. FIGURE 5. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Apelian. two phase. Apelian. Source: After D.Cast Structures FIGURE 5.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. single phase. and (b) plane front.

Effects of Solidification Rate  Faster solidification results in: » Smaller microstructural features » Smaller & more uniformly dispersed porosity and intermetallics » Reduced grain size » Improved mechanical properties (strength. & ductility)  Faster solidification will not affect the morphology of inclusions 8/12/2009 44 AE 587 . fatigue.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 8/12/2009 45 AE 587 .Temperature Distribution Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 5.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

12 Solidified skin on a steel casting. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 46 AE 587 . the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure.F. and M. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Solidification Example FIGURE 5. Source: After H. Flemings.C. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. which is based on this principle. Wulff. J. 5th ed. Taylor. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Shrinkage  Stages » Liquid contraction during cooling prior to solidification » Solidification shrinkage: Contraction during the phase change from liquid to solid » Thermal contraction of the solidified casting during cooling to room temperature. Solidification Stages Source: Groover 8/12/2009 47 AE 587 .

Shrinkage and Contraction Data Volumetric Contraction Solidification Shrinkage.0 7.0 AE 587 .5 48 Metal Aluminum Al Alloys Gray cast iron Gray cast iron. % 7.0 3.5 6.5 5.0 3. % 5.8 0 3.0 7.0 1.2 7. high C Low C cast steel Copper Bronze 8/12/2009 Solid Thermal Contraction.0 4.6 5.

0 V= casting volume in in. and specific heat) • amount of superheat » Cm can be determined experimentally for each mold and metal combination.5 to 2.3 (cm3) A= surface area of the casting in. thermal conductivity. 8/12/2009 49 AE 587 .HEAT EXTRACTION AND SOLIDIFICATION TIME The solidification time (TST) of a mold can be estimated using Chvorinov's law: TST = Cm(V/A)n where TST = Total solidification time in minutes n = is an exponent has a value between 1. and heat fusion) • the properties of the mold material( density. specific heat. Cm= the mold constant which depends on: • metal characteristics ( density.2 (cm2).

25 (V/A)2c   Calculation of the riser geometry requires that V/A be maximum. and The size of the riser should be greater than the shrinkage volume of the casting.25 TSTc Taking n =2 (V/A)2 r = 1. the time of solidification of the riser (TSTr) should be at least 25% longer than that for the casting (TSTc): TSTr = 1.Riser design  The minimum size of a riser can be determined from Chvorinov's rule. Vr > Shrinkage volume of the casting 8/12/2009 50 AE 587 .

Basic types of risers Source: DeGarmo/Black/ Kohser 8/12/2009 51 AE 587 . – longer feeding distance – occupies some of the flask space. 2.TYPES OF RISERS 1. Top Riser: » Characteristics: – sits on top of the casting – short feed distance required – occupies less space in the flask. Side Riser: » Characteristics: – located adjacent to the mold cavity in the horizontal direction.

distance between risers Placement of risers and chill blocks Source: Ghosh and Mallik 8/12/2009 52 AE 587 . Max.Riser location and feeding Distance     Risers must solidify after casting The riser should be placed so that it is continuously feed the casting and directional solidification is maintained Riser should be placed on the thermal center of the casting The feeding distance should be less than or equal the following recommendations.

Riser Aids

Purpose » Promoting directional solidification » Reducing number and size of risers Methods » External chills » Internal chills » Reducing the cooling rate of risers – Use open risers – Use insulating sleeves around the rise – Surround the sides and top of riser with exothermic materials that supply added heat to the riser.

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Chills
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Heat sinks that promote directional solidification Internal or External

Figure 10.9
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Chills

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 5.35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners), used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal, as shown in (c).

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25 in. and thickness = 1.25 times its diameter. The casting is a square plate.Example 3  A cylindrical riser is to be designed for a sand mold. 8/12/2009 56 AE 587 ./in2 in Chvorinov’s rule. determine the dimensions of the riser so that it will take 30% longer for the riser to solidify. The length of the cylinder is to be 1. each side = 10 in.. If the metal is cast iron and Cm = 16.0 min.

Fluidity   Fluidity is defined as the ability of a molten metal to flow and fill the mold. Fluidity measurement: » Length of a spiral shape cast (Figure a) » Plate mold length (Figure b) » Length of a fill under vacuum 8/12/2009 57 Methods of measuring fluidity Source: El-Wakil AE 587 .

Factors Affecting Fluidity  Mold Design » Component dimensions. sprue. 8/12/2009 58 AE 587 .   Mold temperature » Fluidity increase with increasing mold temperature Type of solidification » Columnar is helpful » Dendritic slows down flow  Rate of pouring » Fluidity decreases with the decrease of the pouring rate. Increase of superheat lowers viscosity and delays solidification. riser affect fluidity to varying degree  Mold Materials and its characteristics » The higher the thermal conductivity and the rougher the surface the lower the fluidity. runners.  Amount of Superheat » Fluidity increases with the increase of superheat.

Shell Molding: Casting process in which the mold is a thin shell of sand held together by thermosetting resin binder » teps A heated match plate is placed Invert the box so that the sand on the box containing sand with resin fall on the hot plate and form resin binder a shell Assemble two halves and place support with sand or metal shot in a box. Source: DeGarmo/Black/Kohser 8/12/2009 AE 587 . The mold now is ready for pouring. The mold and shell are then placed in a furnace for 59 several minutes to complete curing. Strip shell molds from the pattern Reposition the box to clear away uncured sand.

» Not suitable for large size products above 25 lb.Shell Molding   Advantages » Provides better surface finish than ordinary sand casting (100 in or 2. Shell Mold Final Product Two halves of a shell mold pattern 8/12/2009 60 AE 587 . no further machining. » Economical. etc.13 mm) are quite common.003 to 0. less labor.5 m) » Better dimensional accuracy. thus it can not be justified for low volume production. » Good collapsibility of the mold help in avoiding tearing and cracking of the casting.005 (0. » The process can be completely mechanized Disadvantages » More expensive metal pattern.08 to 0. Tolerance of 0.

evaporative-foam process. lost pattern process. and internal cores (if needed) Mold does not have to be opened into cope and drag sections 8/12/2009 61 AE 587 .Expanded Polystyrene Process     Uses a mold of sand packed around a polystyrene foam pattern which vaporizes when molten metal is poured into mold Other names: lost-foam process. risers. and full-mold process Polystyrene foam pattern includes sprue. gating system.

Expanded Polystyrene Process (Lost Foam Casting) (1) Polystyrene pattern is made and assembled (2) The pattern is dipped in refractory slurry or sprayed by refractory compound (3) The pattern is placed in a metal box and supported by sand (4) The sand is compacted by vibration 8/12/2009 (5) The molten metal is then poured in the polystyrene pattern. 62 (6) Casting is removed and sand reclaimed AE 587 .

Expanded Polystyrene Process (Lost Foam Casting) 8/12/2009 63 AE 587 .

then many machining and finishing operations could be eliminated. – no draft or parting lines are needed. – speed up the process of mold making. – cores and risers build in the pattern » Precision and surface finish are sufficiently good. » Most metal can be cast Limitations » Pattern cost can be high for small quantities » Patterns are easily damaged or distorted because of their low strength 64 AE 587 8/12/2009 .Expanded Polystyrene Process (Lost Foam Casting)   Advantages » Patterns need not to be removed from the mold. » High metal utilization » Sand can be recycled » There is no limitations on the shape and size of product.

Expanded Polystyrene Process  Applications: » Mass production of castings for automobile engines » Automated and integrated manufacturing systems are used to 1. Mold the polystyrene foam patterns and then 2. Feed them to the downstream casting operation 8/12/2009 65 AE 587 .

after which wax is melted away prior to pouring molten metal  "Investment" comes from a less familiar definition of "invest" ."to cover completely.Investment Casting (Lost Wax Process) A pattern made of wax is coated with a refractory material to make mold." which refers to coating of refractory material around wax pattern  It is a precision casting process .capable of producing castings of high accuracy and intricate detail 8/12/2009 66 AE 587 .

8/12/2009 Source: Kalpakjian 67 AE 587 . (7) The mold is the broken away to separate casting. (5) the mold is then placed in an oven to melt away the wax (g) (6) The hot pattern is then placed on a container and molten metal is poured. (4) The full mold (f) is formed by covering it with sufficient material to make it rigid (e). and b) (2) patterns are attached to a sprue to form a tree (c) (3) The tree is then coated with a thin layer of refractory material (d).Investment Casting (Lost Wax) Steps: (1) Wax patterns are produced in a mold (a.

» Close dimensional control. tolerances of +/.0.) 68 AE 587 8/12/2009 .003 in. are possible » Good surface finish » Wax can be recovered and used » A net shape process.Investment Casting (Lost-Wax)   Advantages » Can be used to produce casting of high accuracy and intricate detail. machining is not required Limitations » Costly patterns and molds » Labor costs can be high » Limited size (less than 10 lb.

Permanent Mold Casting Processes  Method » Molds are made of steel or fine-grain cast iron » Mold halves or sections are hinged so that they can open or close accurately. » Cavity surfaces are to be coated with thin layer of refractory materials » Cores can be used with permanent molds to form interior surfaces 69 AE 587 8/12/2009 . » Molds are preheated at the beginning of the run to maintain uniform temperature.

Permanent Mold Casting Processes Mold preheated and coated Cores are inserted and mold closed Pour molten metal into the mold Finished Product Open mold and eject product Source: Groover 8/12/2009 70 AE 587 .

» Multiple cavities can often be included in a single mold 71 AE 587 8/12/2009 .Permanent Mold Casting Processes  Advantages » Good surface finish » Accurate dimensions (within 0.01 in.) » Solidification can be controlled using proper chill design » Faster cooling rate produces stronger material than with sand casting.

the actual mold life varies with: – – – – – Alloy being cast Mold material Pouring temperature Mold temperature Mold configurations 72 AE 587 8/12/2009 . tin. less than 60% » Mold life is very limited. and zinc.Permanent Mold Casting Processes  Disadvantages » Limited to low melting point metals – Common metals include alloys of aluminum. » High initial cost » Shape. lead. copper. irons and steel can also be cast in graphite molds. size and part complexity are limitations » Low yield rate. magnesium.

copper-base alloys. process is best suited to high volume production and can be automated accordingly Typical parts: automotive pistons. and cast iron 8/12/2009 73 AE 587 . and certain castings for aircraft and missiles Metals commonly cast: aluminum. magnesium. pump bodies.Applications of Permanent Mold Casting    Due to high mold cost.

copper and aluminum-based alloys can be produced with excellent properties Dies are made from hardened hot-worked steel. Dies can be designed for simple products. Dies usually have water cooling passages. or complex products. Dies often cost in excess of $5000 to $10. Dies tend to be expensive. Die casting process is limited to mass production 74 AE 587 8/12/2009 . Special zinc-. ejectors.000 Die life is limited by wear. multiple product.Permanent Mold Casting :Die Casting           Metal is injected in the mold at high pressure (1000 to 50. fine sections and excellent details can be achieved.000 psi) Pressure is maintained during solidification Combination of metal mold and pressure. and thermal fatigue. cores.

Hot-Chamber Die Casting Metal is melted in a container. lead. and magnesium 8/12/2009 75 AE 587 . and a piston injects liquid metal under high pressure into the die  High production rates .500 parts per hour not uncommon  Applications limited to low melting-point metals that do not chemically attack plunger and other mechanical components  Casting metals: zinc. tin.

and maintains the pressure during part solidification Finished product Components of a hot-chamber die-casting machine Source:DeGarmo/Black/Kohser After part solidification.Hot Chamber Die Casting Machine Close chamber and let metal flow in chamber Plunger then forces metal into die. plunger withdrawn and die opened. and the part is then ejected using ejectors 8/12/2009 Source: Groover 76 AE 587 .

tin. and magnesium alloys  Advantages of hot-chamber process favor its use on low melting-point alloys (zinc. brass. and a piston injects metal under high pressure into die cavity  High production but not usually as fast as hot-chamber machines because of pouring step  Casting metals: aluminum. lead) 8/12/2009 77 AE 587 .Cold-Chamber Die Casting Machine Molten metal is poured into unheated chamber from external melting container.

8/12/2009 Source: Groover 78 AE 587 . then pour molten metal in the Activate ram to force metal in the die chamber and maintain pressure until part solidify Configuration of cold chamber die-casting machine Once part solidify.Cold-Chamber Die Casting Machines Close die and withdraw ram. withdraw ram and activate ejection system to eject casting.

McGraw Hill. 8/12/2009 79 AE 587 .Die Casting Machine Source: Introduction to Manufacturing Processes By John Schey. 2000.

Cold Chamber Advantages  Short cycle time  Better thermal control of the process  Loading a new charge of molten metal is done automatically  The molten metal exposure to the atmosphere is reduced Disadvantages  Alloy limitations  Lower injection pressures and speed than cold chamber  Higher maintenance costs 8/12/2009 80 AE 587 .Hot Chamber vs.

 Molten metal exposed to atmosphere 8/12/2009 81 AE 587 .Cold Chamber vs. Hot Chamber Advantages    Allows for casting of wider range of alloys Higher injection pressure and speed Lower tooling maintenance cost Disadvantages  Slower cycle times than hot chamber process  Less control of metal temperature  The charge cools prior to injection.

03 in.005 in.002 in. Limitations » High initial cost » Limited to high-fluidity nonferrous metals » Part size is limited (1 oz up to 15 lb.) » Excellent dimensional accuracy (Typically tolerances are 0. runners and flash 8/12/2009 82 AE 587 . for the first inch and 0. for each additional inch) » Can produce thin sections up to 0.Die Casting   Advantages » High production rate » Economical for mass production » Extremely smooth surface (40 to 100 in. » Rapid cooling provides fine grain size and high strength.) » Porosity may be a problem » Some scrap in sprue.

up to 6 slides can be added    This process is used primarily for casting small zinc components and is being used for casting magnesium parts PC controllers are used to control the position of the slides Up to 75 cycles per minute can be achieved 8/12/2009 83 AE 587 .Multi-slide Dies   Is a variation of hot-chamber die casting Use 4 perpendicular slides in the tool » enables complex castings to be produced. » In some cases.

Permanent Mold Casting Low Pressure Die casting 8/12/2009 84 AE 587 .

Aluminum castings from 2 . and other low melting point alloys Sand cores can be used in the manufacture of parts with complex shapes.Permanent Mold Casting Low Pressure Die casting      The process is capable of producing high quality castings Commonly cast materials Al alloys.150kg can be cast. 8/12/2009 85 AE 587 . Mg alloys. but the most common casting weight is around 10kg High volume production is needed to justify the cost of the dies.

This process combines the advantages of casting and forging. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 86 AE 587 .Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Is performed by: » Pouring a pre-measured amount of molten metal into the die. Used in making pistons for diesel engines. 8/12/2009 87 AE 587 . » Allowing the metal to cool below liquidus. Results in highly refined grain structure.Permanent Mold Casting Squeeze Casting (Melt Forging)     A variation of cold chamber pressure die casting. » Closing the die.

Sample of Squeeze Cast Parts Source: http://www.htm 8/12/2009 88 AE 587 .entirecoupling.com/Product.

As a consequence.03 in. shell mold casting. and green-sand casting Suitable for thin-walled (0. This is an alternative to investment casting. This transfer is less turbulent than by other casting techniques so that gas inclusions can be very limited.) complex shaped with uniform properties Can be automated. The pressure inside the die is decreased by a vacuum pump and the difference of pressure forces the liquid metal to enter the die. this new technique is specially aimed to components which can subsequently be heat-treated.Permanent Mold Casting : Vacuum Casting     The principle is the same as low-pressure die casting. 0. 89 AE 587 8/12/2009 .75 mm.

Note that the mold has a bottom gate. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal.Vacuum-Casting Process FIGURE 5. Source: After R. Blackburn. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 90 AE 587 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

and their Advantages and Limitations. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 91 AE 587 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.8 Casting Processes.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.6 Properties and typical applications of common diecasting alloys. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 92 AE 587 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. 5th ed.

Additional Steps After Solidification       Trimming Removing the core Surface cleaning Inspection Repair. if required Heat treatment 8/12/2009 93 AE 587 .

parting-line flash. appendages can be broken off  Otherwise. chaplets. shearing. and any other excess metal from the cast part  For brittle casting alloys and when cross sections are relatively small.Trimming Removal of sprues. risers. fins. runners. band-sawing. hammering. abrasive wheel cutting. or various torch cutting methods are used 8/12/2009 94 AE 587 . hack-sawing.

and they often fall out of casting as the binder deteriorates  In some cases.Removing the Core If cores have been used. cores are removed by chemically dissolving bonding agent  Solid cores must be hammered or pressed out 8/12/2009 95 AE 587 . either manually or mechanically  In rare cases. they must be removed  Most cores are bonded. they are removed by shaking casting.

wire brushing. and chemical pickling  Surface cleaning is most important for sand casting » In many permanent mold processes. this step can be avoided  Defects are possible in casting.Surface Cleaning Removal of sand from casting surface and otherwise enhancing appearance of surface  Cleaning methods: tumbling. buffing. and inspection is needed to detect their presence 8/12/2009 96 AE 587 . air-blasting with coarse sand grit or metal shot.

Heat Treatment   Castings are often heat treated to enhance properties Reasons for heat treating a casting: » For subsequent processing operations such as machining » To bring out the desired properties for the application of the part in service 8/12/2009 97 AE 587 .

Note that because of the high cost of equipment. Source: The North American Die Casting Association.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 98 AE 587 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. 5th ed.

and inspection operations 8/12/2009 99 AE 587 .Casting Cost Considerations  Reduced direct assembly costs    Reduced inventory Reduced floor space Reduced production flow. control.

Factors Influencing Casting Costs   Casting Design » Size. weight. and complexity of the casting are most important parameters Alloy Selection » Alloying elements can be expensive (i.e. Ag) » Some alloys are more difficult to melt and pour » Higher temperatures may be needed to produce desired fluidity » Protective environments may be needed 8/12/2009 100 AE 587 .

Factors Influencing Casting Costs  Quality » How well casting meets customer’s requirements » How “repeatable” is the process. » Quality is measured by: – Chemical and mechanical properties – “defect-free” casting – Accuracy & consistency of dimensions » Premium quality requirements will lead to cost increase » Producing substandard part quality leads to cost increase 101 AE 587 8/12/2009 .

Factors Influencing Casting Costs       Cost of patterns/dies Cost of Tooling Production Quantity Cost of Machining Cost of Heat treatment Other Costs 8/12/2009 102 AE 587 .

Factors Influencing Casting Costs  Example: Cylinder Head » Scrapped after casting: $50 » Scrapped after final machining: $120 » Scrapped after component assembly: $500 » Replacement engine: $4000 8/12/2009 103 AE 587 .

Process Selection Procedure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Identify process characteristics using product design requirements Identify feasible processes (use constraints). Eliminate unfeasible ones Rank feasible processes using desirable criteria (cost, lead time, No. of units, etc.) Identify any additional characteristics of feasible processes Select process of choice

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Process-Material Relationship

Manufacturing Process Sand casting Die casting Investment casting Low pressure casting Hot chamber die casting Lost Foam casting Cosworth casting

Compatible Material(s) F, NF F, NF F, NF NF NF F, NF NF

F = Ferrous, NF = Non-Ferrous
8/12/2009 105 AE 587

Process-Product Relationship

Manufacturing Process Sand casting Die casting Investment casting Low pressure casting Lost Foam casting

Min Thickness mm ~5 ~1 2-3 3-5 2-3

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8/12/2009 107 AE 587 .Process-Product Relationship Other process-product relationships include  Shape Capability  Surface finish  Dimensional tolerances  Cost  Etc.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Casting Applications TABLE 5.3 Typical applications for castings and casting characteristics. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 108 AE 587 .

Metals for Casting  Most commercial castings are made of alloys rather than pure metals » Alloys are generally easier to cast. and properties of product are better  Casting alloys can be classified as: » Ferrous » Nonferrous 8/12/2009 109 AE 587 .

(2) nodular iron.Ferrous Casting Alloys: Cast Iron     Most important of all casting alloys Tonnage of cast iron castings is several times that of all other metals combined Several types: (1) gray cast iron. (4) malleable iron. (3) white cast iron. depending on composition 8/12/2009 110 AE 587 . and (5) alloy cast irons Typical pouring temperatures  1400C (2500F).

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 111 AE 587 . 5th ed.4 Properties and typical applications of cast irons. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5% to 4% C and 1% to 3% Si » Has graphite flakes Ductile Iron: » Has similar C and Si content as gray cast iron but with graphite spheroids White cast iron » 2% to 3.7% to 2% Si » Produced by rapid cooling thus has cementite rather than flakes Malleable iron » Heat treated white cast iron to get carbon out of cementite to form graphite 8/12/2009 112 AE 587 .Cast Irons     Gray cast iron : » 2.3% C and 0.

and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 113 AE 587 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. and (c) ferritic malleable iron. (b) ferritic nodular iron. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form.14 Microstructure for cast irons. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

so molten metal must be isolated from air » Molten steel has relatively poor fluidity 8/12/2009 114 AE 587 . steel readily oxidizes.Ferrous Casting Alloys: Steel    The mechanical properties of steel make it an attractive engineering material The capability to create complex geometries makes casting an attractive shaping process Difficulties when casting steel: » Pouring temperature of steel is higher than for most other casting metals  1650C (3000F) » At such temperatures.

Nonferrous Casting Alloys: Aluminum   Generally considered to be very castable Pouring temperatures low due to low melting temperature of aluminum » Tm = 660C (1220F)  Properties: » Light weight » Range of strength properties by heat treatment » Easy to machine 8/12/2009 115 AE 587 .

pump components. brass.Nonferrous Casting Alloys: Copper Alloys   Includes bronze. ornamental jewelry 8/12/2009 116 AE 587 . marine propeller blades. and aluminum bronze Properties: » Corrosion resistance » Attractive appearance » Good bearing qualities   Limitation: high cost of copper Applications: pipe fittings.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 117 AE 587 .5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Cosworth casting.  Steel dies are used in die casting of Al 8/12/2009 118 AE 587 . Low pressure die casting.Aluminum Casting  Aluminum is cast using » » » » » Sand casting. Cold chamber pressure die casting. Permanent Mold (gravity feed) casting.

Better creep properties than wrought Al alloys. Good surface finish of the cast product. Good fluidity. Negligible solubility of all gases (except hydrogen) in molten Al.Advantages of Al Alloys for Casting      Low melting temperature. 8/12/2009 119 AE 587 .

0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 120 AE 587 .Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Mechanical properties are inferior to wrought Al products.5%). Shrinkage in the amount of (3.Problem with Al Castings    Variability in mechanical properties.5%. 8/12/2009 121 AE 587 .8.

8/12/2009 122 AE 587 .Advantages of Mg Die Casting      High fluidity in most alloys Lower volumetric specific heat than Al and Zn Low density Low solubility of Fe in liquid Mg Good machineability.

Post-Casting Operations for Mg       Trimming Heat treating Machining Surface treatment Forming Joining 8/12/2009 123 AE 587 .

dezign.org/zinc . thus fine grains Castings solidify from mold walls to center creating fine grains with low porosity in walls. and larger more porous grains in the core Wall Core 8/12/2009 124 AE 587 http://www.Characteristics of Zinc Die Castings   Fast cooling rate.

org/zinc AE 587 .Characteristics of Zinc Die Castings    Mold made of steel or graphite U-shaped riser is often used with gravity die casting Thicker gates are also used with gravity die casting 8/12/2009 125 http://www.dezign.

2 processes. 5th ed. General characteristics of casting Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Characteristics of Casting TABLE 5. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 126 AE 587 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

Furnaces for Casting Processes  Furnaces most commonly used in foundries: » » » » » Cupolas Direct fuel-fired furnaces Crucible furnaces Electric-arc furnaces Induction furnaces 8/12/2009 127 AE 587 .

and possible alloying elements. flux." consisting of iron.Cupolas Vertical cylindrical furnace equipped with tapping spout near base  Used only for cast irons » Although other furnaces are also used. the largest tonnage of cast iron is melted in cupolas  The "charge. coke. is loaded through a charging door located less than halfway up height of cupola Cupola furnace used in melting cast iron 8/12/2009 128 Source: Groover AE 587 .

Direct Fuel-Fired Furnaces Small open-hearth in which charge is heated by natural gas fuel burners located on side of furnace  Furnace roof assists heating action by reflecting flame down against charge  At bottom of hearth is a tap hole to release molten metal  Generally used for nonferrous metals such as copper-base alloys and aluminum 8/12/2009 129 AE 587 .

Crucible Furnaces Metal is melted without direct contact with burning fuel mixture  Sometimes called indirect fuel-fired furnaces  Container (crucible) is made of refractory material or high-temperature steel alloy  Used for nonferrous metals such as bronze. (b) stationary. brass. (c) tilting 8/12/2009 130 AE 587 . and alloys of zinc and aluminum  Three types used in foundries: (a) lift-out type.

(b) stationary pot. from which molten metal must be ladled. Source: Groover 8/12/2009 131 AE 587 . and (c) tilting-pot furnace.Crucible Furnaces Figure 11.19 Three types of crucible furnaces: (a) lift-out crucible.

9 Electric arc furnace for steelmaking Source: Groover 8/12/2009 132 AE 587 .Electric-Arc Furnaces Charge is melted by heat generated from an electric arc  High power consumption. but electric-arc furnaces can be designed for high melting capacity  Used primarily for melting steel Figure 6.

20 Induction furnace Source: Groover 8/12/2009 133 AE 587 .Induction Furnaces Uses alternating current passing through a coil to develop magnetic field in metal  Induced current causes rapid heating and melting  Electromagnetic force field also causes mixing action in liquid metal  Since metal does not contact heating elements. cast iron. and aluminum alloys are common applications in foundry work Figure 11. environment can be closely controlled to produce molten metals of high quality and purity  Melting steel.

transfer is accomplished by ladles Figure 11.21 Two common types of ladles: (a) crane ladle.Ladles   Moving molten metal from melting furnace to mold is sometimes done using crucibles More often. and (b) two-man ladle. 8/12/2009 134 Source: Groover AE 587 .

Casting Quality   There are numerous opportunities for things to go wrong in a casting operation. resulting in quality defects in the product The defects can be classified as follows: » General defects common to all casting processes » Defects related to sand casting process 8/12/2009 135 AE 587 .

22 Some common defects in castings: (a) misrun 8/12/2009 Source: Groover 136 AE 587 .General Defects: Misrun A casting that has solidified before completely filling mold cavity Figure 11.

22 Some common defects in castings: (b) cold shut Source: Groover 8/12/2009 137 AE 587 .General Defects: Cold Shut Two portions of metal flow together but there is a lack of fusion due to premature freezing Figure 11.

General Defects: Shrinkage Cavity Depression in surface or internal void caused by solidification shrinkage that restricts amount of molten metal available in last region to freeze Source: Groover Figure 11.22 Some common defects in castings: (d) shrinkage cavity 8/12/2009 138 AE 587 .

J. Boileau Inclusions 8/12/2009 139 AE 587 .Casting Defect Micro Defects  Gas Porosity  Microshrinkage Porosity or microporosity  Inclusions Courtesy of Dr.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 140 AE 587 . Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. c. 5th ed.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. (b. Pearson Education ISBN No. d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

Sand Casting Defects: Sand Blow Balloon-shaped gas cavity caused by release of mold gases during pouring Figure 11.23 Common defects in sand castings: (a) sand blow Source: Groover 8/12/2009 141 AE 587 .

Sand Casting Defects: Pin Holes Formation of many small gas cavities at or slightly below surface of casting Figure 11.23 Common defects in sand castings: (b) pin holes 8/12/2009 Source: Groover 142 AE 587 .

23 Common defects in sand castings: (e) penetration 8/12/2009 Source: Groover 143 AE 587 . it may penetrate into sand mold or core. causing casting surface to consist of a mixture of sand grains and metal Figure 11.Sand Casting Defects: Penetration When fluidity of liquid metal is high.

Sand Casting Defects: Mold Shift A step in cast product at parting line caused by sidewise relative displacement of cope and drag Figure 11.23 Common defects in sand castings: (f) mold shift Source: Groover 8/12/2009 144 AE 587 .

Foundry Inspection Methods    Visual inspection to detect obvious defects such as misruns. physical. and severe surface flaws Dimensional measurements to insure that tolerances have been met Metallurgical. and other tests concerned with quality of cast metal 8/12/2009 145 AE 587 . cold shuts. chemical.

Design Considerations for Casting 8/12/2009 146 AE 587 .

0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 147 AE 587 .Design for Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association.

Product Design Considerations  Corners on the casting: » Sharp corners and angles should be avoided. since they are sources of stress concentrations and may cause hot tearing and cracks » Generous fillets should be designed on inside corners and sharp edges should be blended 8/12/2009 148 AE 587 .

draft facilitates removal of pattern from mold – Draft = 1 for sand casting » In permanent mold casting.Product Design Considerations  Draft Guidelines: » In expendable mold casting. purpose is to aid in removal of the part from the mold – Draft = 2 to 3 for permanent mold processes » Similar tapers should be allowed if solid cores are used 8/12/2009 149 AE 587 .

25 Design change to eliminate the need for using a core: (a) original design. 8/12/2009 Source: Groover 150 AE 587 . and (b) redesign.Core Elimination  Minor changes in part design can reduce need for coring Figure 11.

Product Design Considerations  Dimensional Tolerances and Surface Finish: » Significant differences in dimensional accuracies and finishes can be achieved in castings. depending on process: – Poor dimensional accuracies and finish for sand casting – Good dimensional accuracies and finish for die casting and investment casting 8/12/2009 151 AE 587 .

called the machining allowance. is left on the casting in those surfaces where machining is necessary » Typical machining allowances for sand castings are around 1.Product Design Considerations  Machining Allowances: » Almost all sand castings must be machined to achieve the required dimensions and part features » Additional material.5 and 3 mm (1/16 and 1/4 in) 8/12/2009 152 AE 587 .

All alloys exhibit a large shrinkage volume. » (a) Directionally solidifying alloys cause large shrinkage voids. » (b) An eutectic type alloy causes shrinkage depression. 8/12/2009 153 Showcasing various shrinkage defects AE 587 for different alloys. . » (c) An Equiaxed solidifying alloy produces shrinkage in the form of small voids and dispersed shrinkage. This can be explained with the adjoining figure 1.Shrinkage behavior of Various Alloys  The defects caused by shrinkage vary with the type of alloy.

In this case sections must be frozen at the same rate if possible. no change in the plate taper results in less shrinkage. While in equiaxed alloy as shown in Fig 2(c). In the case of eutectic alloy shown in Fig 2(b) there is shrinkage associated in the form of a depression in the riser. Consider the Fig 2(a) in this the alloy is a directionally solidifying type and by adding a taper to the plate the shrinkage has been forced from plate to the riser. Figure 2c: Equiaxed Alloy. 154 AE 587 . Figure 2b: Eutectic Alloy.Solidification and Shrinkage Figure 2a: Directionally Solidifying Alloy.  8/12/2009 The figures above showcase various solidifications and their respective shrinkages. The shrinkage associated with each type of alloy changes with the riser and plate design.

 Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 155 AE 587 .Design Strategies to Counteract Shrinkage  Provision of a riser near the heavier section in a casting results in reduction of shrinkage. Proper design of casting whereby lighter section follows a heavier section resulting in less shrinkage. Proper design of casting helps in the reduction of shrinkage defects.

8/12/2009 Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 156 AE 587 .Design Strategies to Counteract Shrinkage  Replacing sharp corners and angles with fillets (Fig.4) results in less defects associated with shrinkage along with a reduction in stresses caused due to thermal stress concentrations. Providing fillets and taper helps in Reduction of thermal stresses near joints.

 Sharp corners and angles cause higher stresses and hence rounding of corners is suggested in the Figure Rounding of corners necessary for reduction in stresses.Strategies to Avoid Defects During Cooling  Mechanical stresses are induced in a casting on cooling. The solidification process in metals always proceeds from the mold face to the center of the casting. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 157 AE 587 .

Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 158 AE 587 .  The design engineer must take into consideration the cooling curves for various junction designs.Strategies to Avoid Defects during Cooling Cooling curves can be consulted in designing junctions in castings. The best casting design would entail bringing the minimum number of sections and also by avoiding acute angles along with large fillets.

Various metals have varying tendencies for the formation of slag/dross.Slag and Dross Formation  Slag/Dross – These are synonyms meaning “refuse from melting of metals”. This makes it critical in choosing the right alloy for the casting. Although slag is usually referred with higher melting point metals and dross with lower melting point metals. Not necessarily choosing the alloy which causes less slag/dross but by choosing the alloy keeping in mind the application. 159 AE 587  8/12/2009 .

Pouring Temperature  Pouring temperature becomes a critical parameter in casting design due to the extremely high temperatures associated with molten metal. The designer must hence take into consideration problems associated with thermal degradation of the mold and formation of hot spots.  8/12/2009 160 AE 587 .

8/12/2009 161 AE 587 . eg: Only titanium alloys are poured in graphite molds. The pouring temperatures would also be affected with the type of mold material.Metal Alloys and Their Approximate Pouring Temperatures  Table 2 courtesy “Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook” provides the design engineer with approximate pouring temperatures which would result in the least amount of thermal abuse.  Table 2: Table gives recommended approximate poring temperatures.

Section Thicknesses Uniform thickness of section for the lugs is recommended. Chills can be provided to counteract this phenomenon Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 162 AE 587 . Non uniform sections would cause defects in the casting due to the variable cooling rates.  Due to variable cooling rates sections designed should be as uniform in thickness as possible.

Correct proportioning of inner wall dimensions Reduction of the inner section to 9/10th of outer walls. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 163 AE 587 .   Cooling rates of inner portions are much slower compared to outer surfaces. This makes it necessary to avoid as far as possible sharp angles and corners. A good rule of thumb is to reduce the inner sections to 9/10th the thickness of the outer walls.

Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 164 AE 587 . As in in the Figure since the inner radius is much smaller it is advisable to cast it as a solid and to then drill the required hole. Inner cylinder should be bigger than the casting wall thickness.Correct proportioning of inner wall dimensions  For economy purposes the radius of the inner cylinder should be bigger than the wall thickness.

 Since ribs are designed to increase stiffness and for weight reduction. Thickness of the ribs should be 80% of casting thickness and the ribs should be rounded at the edges and filleted correctly.Rib Design Principles Figures show the Do’s and Don’t’s of Rib design in castings. So if the ribs are designed with less depth or are widely spaced they become redundant. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy  8/12/2009 165 AE 587 .

If the casting wall itself can provide the necessary stiffness then omission of ribs is recommended. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy  8/12/2009 166 AE 587 .Rib Design Complex Rib design should be avoided if possible.  Design of complex ribbing should be avoided where necessary due to simplification in casting process on the whole.

Source: Schrader & Elshennawy Best design practices for bosses and pads.Bosses. Hence it is recommended to not use these elements where possible. Lugs and Pads  Since bosses and pads increase the metal thickness this entail results in hot spots in the casting requiring the presence of chills etc. 8/12/2009 167 AE 587 .

Table 3: Guide to designing bosses. Recommended design for bosses and pads.  Table 3 gives an approximate reference guide for the heights of bosses.Bosses. Lugs and Pads  As is the case with junction design the design of bosses should be such that they seamlessly mate with the casting with the help of proper tapers and allowances as in the Figure. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 168 AE 587 .

So the design engineer must work closely in minimizing the complexities involved in the casting. This can be reduced if the casting can be done solid without the recess. Cost becomes a factor due to the need for a core.Redundancies A projection increases the cost of making a casting  By providing a recess in the above casting. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 169 AE 587 .