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Language and identity ( 3A

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Culture and sub-culture Differences

Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Adapting to Others  Culture and Communication Gender and Communication Barriers to Bridging Differences and Adapting to Others    Adapting to Others Who Are Different From You .

Religion: Evolution of Man .

beliefs.Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Culture and Communication  Culture is a learned system of knowledge. behavior. attitudes. and norms that is shared by a group of people. values. A Co-culture is a cultural group within a larger culture. – Amish – gender   . Cultures are not static.

Culture shock   Our culture and life experiences determine our world view—the general perspective that determines how we perceive what happens to us. .Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Culture and Communication  Intercultural communication occurs when individuals or groups from different cultures communicate.

Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Cultural Contexts  People from different cultures respond to their surroundings or cultural context cues in different ways. High-Context Cultures – nonverbal cues are extremely important – communicators rely on the context   Low-Context Cultures rely more explicitly on language .

Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Cultural Values  Masculine and Feminine Perspectives Avoidance or Tolerance of Uncertainty Distribution of Power Individualism or Collectivism    .

Cultural Values: Masculine/Feminine  Masculine – emphasize getting things done and being assertive – tend to value traditional roles for men and women – not a reflection of biological sex – not completely independent of biology .not exclusively defined by relation to sex is termed gender.  Feminine – emphasize building relationships and seeking peace and harmony with others .

lifestyle. intercultural competence). – Assumed causes or explanation of situation as facts to escape the discomfort associated with ambiguity and uncertainty Tolerance for Ambiguity Ambiguity tolerance is the ability to perceive ambiguity in information and behavior in a neutral and open way. and leadership style. Ambiguity tolerance is an important issue in personality development and education.[2] orientation towards diversity (cross-cultural communication.[3] . levels of tolerance of ambiguity are correlated with creativity.Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Cultural Values: Uncertainty and Certainty     Avoidance of Uncertainty – Uncertainty accepting is more innovative than uncertainty avoiding society because of the greater legitimacy.[1] risk aversion. In psychology and in management. psychological resilience.

Cultural Values: Approaches to Power  Decentralized Approach – leadership is not vested in one person. power is decentralized – decisions are likely to be made by consensus  Centralized Approach – militaristic approach to power – prefer strongly organized. centrally controlled form of government .

Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Cultural Values: Individualism and Collectivism  Collectivistic Cultures – champion what people do together and reward group achievement – strive to accomplish goals for the benefit of the group  Individualistic Cultures – individual recognition – self-realization – tend to be loosely knit socially .

Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Gender and Communication  Sex-Based Expectations – start at birth – gender roles are transmitted via communication  Why and How Women and Men Communicate – instrumental and expressive orientations – content and relational dimensions of messages .

Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Barriers to Bridging Differences   Assuming Superiority – ethnocentrism Assuming Similarity Stereotyping and Prejudice – stereotyping – prejudice   Different Communication Codes .

Chapter 6: Adapting to Others Adapting to Others     Seek Information Listen and Ask Questions Tolerate Ambiguity Develop Mindfulness – engage in self-talk Become Other-Oriented – other-oriented communication – social decentering – empathy and sympathy Adapt To Others   .